Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|33. Auxiliary verbs; so/neither

Read the rules

In each of these sentences there is an auxiliary verb and a main verb:



The hotel





do you





my keys.

to the party.

ten years ago.

In these examples have/can’t/was/do are auxiliary (= helping) verbs.

You can use an auxiliary verb when you don’t want to repeat something:

1. «Have you locked the door?» «Yes, I have.» (= I have locked the door)

2. George wasn’t working, but Janet was. (= Janet was working)

3. She could lend me the money, but she won’t. (= she won’t lend me the money)

Use do/does/did for the present and past simple:

1. «Do you like onions?» «Yes, I do.» (= I like onions)

2. «Does Simon live in London?» «He did, but he doesn’t any more.»

You can use auxiliary verbs to deny what somebody says (= say it is not true):

1. «You’re sitting in my place.» «No, I’m not.» (= I’m not sitting in your place)

2. «You didn’t lock the door before you left.» «Yes, I did.» (= I locked the door)

Read the rules

We use have you? / isn’t she? / do they? etc. to show interest in what somebody has said or to show surprise:

1. «I’ve just seen Simon.» «Oh, have you? How is he?»

2. «Liz isn’t very well today.» «Oh, isn’t she? What’s wrong with her?»

3. «It rained every day during our holiday.» «Did it? What a pity!»

4. «Jim and Nora are getting married.» «Are they? Really?»

British speakers generally use Have you? / Isn’t she? etc. American speakers generally use You have? She isn’t? etc. :
— Liz isn’t feeling well.

Isn’t she? What’s wrong with her?

— Liz isn’t feeling well.

She isn’t? What’s wrong with her?

Read the rules

We use auxiliary verbs with so and neither:

1. «I’m feeling tired.» «So am I.» (= I’m feeling tired too)

2. «I never read newspapers.» «Neither do I.» (= I never read newspapers either)

3. Sue hasn’t got a car and neither has Martin.

Note the word order after so and neither (verb before subject):

  • I passed the exam and so did Paul. (not so Paul did)

Instead of neither, you can use nor. You can also use not… either:

  • «I don’t know.» «Neither do I.» or «Nor do I.» or «I don’t either

Read the rules

I think so / I hope so etc.

After some verbs you can use so when you don’t want to repeat something:

1. «Are those people English?» «I think so.» (= I think they are English)

2. «Will you be at home this evening?» «I expect so. (= I expect I’ll be at home…)

3. «Do you think Kate has been invited to the party?» «I suppose so

In the same way we say: I hope so, I guess so and I’m afraid so.

The usual negative forms are:

  • I think so / I expect so → I don’t think so / I don’t expect so
  • I hope so / I’m afraid so / I guess so → I hope not / I’m afraid not / I guess not
  • I suppose so → I don’t suppose so or I suppose not

1. «Is that woman American?» «I think so. / I don’t think so

2. «Do you think it will rain?» «I hope so. / I hope not(not I don’t hope so)


Complete each sentence with an auxiliary verb (do/was/could etc.). Sometimes the verb must be negative (don’t/wasn’t etc.).


You never agree with Sue. Answer in the way shown. Use contractions where possible


You are talking to Tina. If you’re in the same position as Tina, reply with So… or Neither… as in the first example. Otherwise, ask questions as in the second example.


Read the information in brackets and then answer with I think so, I hope not etc.

1. (You don’t like rain.)

Bob | You

B: Do you think it will rain?

Y: (hope) I hope not.

If you open the lesson plan you will be able to assign separate pages as homework or all the homework pages at once.

УрокУрок HomeworkHomework КурсКурс
  • I have lost my keys
  • Have you?
  • So and neither
  • I think so / I hope so etc.
  • Do / was / could
  • I'm hungry
  • So... or Neither...
  • I think so, I hope not
  • Homework
  1. 1. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|1. I am doing and I do
  2. 2. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|2. I am doing and I do
  3. 3. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|3. I did
  4. 4. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|4. I was doing
  5. 5. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|5. I have done
  6. 6. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|6. I have done 2
  7. 7. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|7. I have been doing
  8. 8. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|8. I've been doing / I've done
  9. 9. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|9. How long have you (been)...?
  10. 10. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|10. For/since; When/How long?
  11. 11. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|11. I have done and I did
  12. 12. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|12. I have done and I did 2
  13. 13. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|13. I had done
  14. 14. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|14. I had been doing
  15. 15. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|15. The future: I am doing / I do
  16. 16. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|16. I will and I'm going to
  17. 17. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|17. Future: Continuous/Perfect
  18. 18. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|18. Conditional I
  19. 19. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|19. Can, could and (be) able to
  20. 20. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|20. Have to and must
  21. 21. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|21. If I do... and If I did...
  22. 22. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|22. If I knew... I wish I knew...
  23. 23. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|23. Conditional III
  24. 24. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|24. Wish
  25. 25. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|25. Is done / was done
  26. 26. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|26. Be/been/being + done
  27. 27. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|27. Passive 3
  28. 28. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|28. Passive: He is said to...
  29. 29. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|29. Have something done
  30. 30. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|30. He said that...
  31. 31. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|31. Say and Tell
  32. 32. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|32. Do you know where..?
  33. 33. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|33. Auxiliary verbs; so/neither
  34. 34. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|34. Do you? Isn't it? etc.
  35. 35. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|35. Gerund
  36. 36. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|36. Verb + to Infinitive
  37. 37. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|37. Verb + Object + to Infinitive
  38. 38. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|38. -ing or to: change in meaning
  39. 39. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|39. Try/Need/Help: -ing or to
  40. 40. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|40. Like / Would like: -ing or to
  41. 41. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|41. Some/any/no/none
  42. 42. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|42. Much/many/few/little
  43. 43. Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|43. Both/either/neither/all/every