Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|47. Though / In spite of / despite

Study this example situation:

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Last year Paul and Joanne had a holiday by the sea. It rained a lot, but they enjoyed themselves.


You can say:

Although it rained a lot, they enjoyed themselves.

(= It rained a lot, but they …)

or

In spite of / Despite the rain, they enjoyed themselves.


Read the rules

After although we use a subject + verb:

1. Although it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.

2. I didn’t get the job although I had the necessary qualifications.


Compare the meaning of although and because:

1. We went out although it was raining.

2. We didn’t go out because it was raining.

Read the rules

After in spite of or despite, we use a noun, a pronoun (this/that/what etc.) or -ing:

1. In spite of the rain, we enjoyed our holiday.

2. I didn’t get the job in spite of having the necessary qualifications.

3. She wasn’t well, but in spite of this she went to work.

4. In spite of what I said yesterday, I still love you.


Despite is the same as in spite of. We say in spite of, but despite (without of):

  • She wasn’t well, but despite this she went to work. (not despite of this)

You can say in spite of the fact (that) … and despite the fact (that) …:

  • I didn’t get the job in spite of the fact (that) / despite the fact (that) I had the necessary qualifications.

Compare in spite of and because of:

1. We went out in spite of the rain. (ordespite the rain.)

2. We didn’t go out because of the rain.

Compare although and in spite of / despite:

1. Although the traffic was bad, / In spite of the traffic, we arrived on time.

(not In spite of the traffic was bad)

2. I couldn’t sleep although I was very tired. / despite being very tired.

(not despite I was tired)


Read the rules

Sometimes we use though instead of although:

  • I didn’t get the job though I had the necessary qualifications.

In spoken English we often use though at the end of a sentence:

1. The house isn’t very nice. I like the garden though. (= but I like the garden)

2. I see them every day. I’ve never spoken to them though. (= but I’ve never spoken to them)


Even though (but not «even» alone) is a stronger form of although:

  • Even though I was really tired, I couldn’t sleep. (not Even I was really tired …)

Study this example situation:

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Your car should have a spare wheel because it is possible you will have a puncture.

Your car should have a spare wheel in case you have a puncture.

In case you have a puncture = because it is possible you will have a puncture.


Read the examples

Some more examples of in case:

1. I’ll leave my mobile phone switched on in case Jane calls. (= because it is possible she will call)

2. I’ll draw a map for you in case you have difficulty finding our house. (= because it is possible you will have difficulty)

3. I’ll remind them about the meeting in case they’ve forgotten. (= because it is possible they have forgotten)


We use just in case for a smaller possibility:

  • I don’t think it will rain, but I’ll take an umbrella just in case. (= just in case it rains)

Do not use will after in case. Use a present tense for the future:

  • I’ll leave my phone switched on in case Jane calls. (not in case Jane will call)

Read the rule

In case is not the same as if. We use in case to say why somebody does (or doesn’t do) something. You do something now in case something happens later.


Compare:

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Read the rule

You can use in case + past to say why somebody did something:

1. I left my phone switched on in case Jane called. (= because it was possible that Jane would call)

2. I drew a map for Sarah in case she had difficulty finding the house.

3. We rang the doorbell again in case they hadn’t heard it the first time.


In case of is not the same as in case. In case of … = if there is … (especially on notices etc.):

1. In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible. (= if there is a fire)

2. In case of emergency, telephone this number. (= if there is an emergency)

Study this example situation:

Unless

The club is for members only.

You can’t go in unless you are a member.

This means:

You can’t go in except if you are a member. or

You can go in only if you are a member.

Unless = except if.


Read the examples

Some more examples of unless:

1. I’ll see you tomorrow unless I have to work late. (= except if I have to work late)

2. There are no buses to the beach. Unless you have a car, it’s difficult to get there. (= except if you have a car)

3. «Shall I tell Liz what happened?» «Not unless she asks you.» (= only if she asks you)

4. Sally hates complaining. She wouldn’t complain about something unless it was really bad. (= except if it was really bad)

5. We can take a taxi to the restaurant — unless you’d prefer to walk. (= except if you’d prefer to walk)


Instead of unless it is often possible to say if … not:

  • Unless we leave now, we’ll be late. or If we don’t leave now, we’ll …

Read the rules

As long as etc.

as long as or so long as

provided (that) or providing (that)

All these expressions mean «if» or «on condition that».

For example:

1. You can borrow my car as long as / so long as you promise not to drive too fast.

(= you can borrow my car, but you must promise not to drive too fast — this is a condition)

2. Travelling by car is convenient provided (that) / providing (that) you have somewhere to park.

(= but only if you have somewhere to park)

3. Providing (that) / Provided (that) the room is clean, I don’t mind which hotel we stay at.

(= the room must be clean — all the rest I don’t mind)


When you are talking about the future, do not use will after unless / as long as / so long as / provided / providing. Use a present tense:

1. I’m not going out unless it stops raining. (not unless it will stop)

2. Providing the weather is good, we’re going to have a picnic. (not providing it will be good)

Complete the sentences with although / in spite of / because / because of

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Although it rained a lot we enjoyed our holiday.


Make one sentence from two. Use the word(s) in brackets in your sentences.

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Use the words in brackets to make a sentence with though in the end

Barbara is going for a long walk in the country. You think she should take:

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some chocolate, a map, an anorak, a camera, some water

You think she should take these things because:

it’s possible she’ll get lost, she might get hungry, perhaps she’ll be thirsty, maybe it will rain, she might want to take some photographs

What do you say to Barbara? Write sentences with in case.

Put in in case or if

Write a new sentence with the same meaning. Use unless in your sentence.

his pen


Choose the correct word or expression for each sentence

If you open the lesson plan you will be able to assign separate pages as homework or all the homework pages at once.

Урок Homework Курс
  • Although
  • In spite of and despite
  • Though
  • The example situation
  • In case and if
  • In case + past
  • Unless
  • As long as etc.
  • Complete the sentences
  • I couldn't sleep
  • In case
  • In case or if
  • Unless
  • Unless / as long as
  • Homework