GE|Adults|Upper-Int|1. The power of music

inlove music


Answer the questions

  1. How often do you listen to music?
  2. When do you like listening to music?
  3. Do you think music can change our mood?

Listen to some short pieces of music and answer the questions

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Queen of the night from Mozart’s Magic Flute Drum and bass Strauss’s Blue Danube Messiaen’s Quartet for the end of time Traditional jazz Experimental jazz Country Rap

  1. How do they make you feel?
  2. Would you like to carry on listening?

Listen and complete the notes

  • circumstances [‘sɜːkəmstænsiz] — the conditions which affect the situation
  • to intensify [ɪn’tensɪfaɪ] — to become greater in strength, amount, or degree
  • to light candles — to burn candles


I think it’s very interesting that human beings are the only animals which listen to music for pleasure. A lot of research has been done to find out why we listen to music, and there seem to be three main reasons. Firstly, we listen to music to make us remember important moments in the past, for example when we met someone for the first time. Think of Humphrey Bogart in the film Casablanca saying «Darling, they’re playing our song». When we hear a certain piece of music, we remember hearing it for the first time in some very special circumstances. Obviously, this music varies from person to person.

Secondly, we listen to music to help us to change activities. If we want to go from one activity to another, we often use music to help us to make the change. For example, we might play a certain kind of music to prepare us to go out in the evening, or we might play another kind of music to relax us when we get home from work. That’s mainly why people listen to music in cars, and they often listen to one kind of music when they’re going to work and another kind when they’re coming home. The same is true of people on buses and trains with their iPods. The third reason why we listen to music is to intensify the emotion that we’re feeling. For example, if we’re feeling sad, sometimes we want to get even sadder, so we play sad music. Or we’re feeling angry and we want to intensify the anger then we play angry music. Or when we’re planning a romantic dinner, we lay the table, we light candles, and then we think what music would make this even more romantic?


Taking notes

We often need to take notes when we are listening, for example, to somebody giving a lecture. If you need to take notes when you are listening to someone speaking in English, try to write down key words or phrases because you won’t have time to write complete sentences. After the lecture you may want to expand your notes into full sentences.



  • higher-pitched — with high musical notes
  • falling pitch — low musical notes
  • irregular rhythms [‘rɪð(ə)mz] — rhythms with not regular intervals
  • to exploit [ɪk’splɔɪt] — to use something and achieve something or gain an advantage from it
  • a scene [siːn] — a scene in a play, film, or book is part of it in which a series of events happen in the same place


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Listen and complete the notes

Let’s take three important human emotions: happiness, sadness, and anger. When people are happy they speak faster, and their voice is higher. When they are sad they speak more slowly and their voice is lower, and when people are angry they raise their voices or shout. Babies can tell whether their mother is happy or not simply by the sound of her voice, not by her words. What music does is it copies this, and it produces the same emotions. So faster, higher-pitched music will sound happy. Slow music with lots of falling pitches will sound sad. Loud music with irregular rhythms will sound angry. It doesn’t matter how good or bad the music is, if it has these characteristics it will make you experience this emotion. Let me give you some examples. For happy, for example, the first movement of Beethoven’s Seventh Symphony. For angry, say Mars, from The Planets by Holst. And for sad, something like Albinoni’s Adagio for strings. Of course the people who exploit this most are the people who write film soundtracks. They can take a scene which visually has no emotion and they can make the scene either scary or calm or happy just by the music they write to go with it. Think of the music in the shower scene in Hitchcock’s film Psycho. All you can see is a woman having a shower, but the music makes it absolutely terrifying.

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Answer the questions

  1. On a typical day when and where do you listen to music?
  2. Do you listen to different kinds of music at different times of day?
  3. What music would you play… ?
  • if you were feeling sad and you wanted to feel more cheerful
  • if you were feeling depressed and you wanted to feel even worse
  • if you were feeling furious about something (and you wanted to feel even angrier)
  • if you were feeling nervous or stressed and wanted to calm down
  • if you wanted to create a romantic atmosphere for a special dinner

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Check what you know. Put the verbs in boxes in the infinitive (with or without to) or the gerund (-ing form).


Gerunds and infinitives

Use the gerund (verb + -ing)

1. after prepositions and phrasal verbs.

I’m very good at remembering names.
She’s given up smoking.

2. as the subject of a sentence.

Eating out is quite cheap here.

3. after some verbs, e.g. hate, spend, don’t mind.

I don’t mind getting up early.

Common verbs which take the gerund include: enjoy, hate, finish, like, love, mind, practise, spend, stop, suggest and phrasal verbs, e.g. give up, go on, etc.

Use the infinitive (+ to)

1. after adjectives.

My flat is easy to find.

2. to express a reason or purpose.

He’s saving money to buy a new car.

3. after some verbs, e.g. want, need, learn.

She’s never learned to drive.
Try not to make a noise.

Common verbs which take the infinitive include: (can’t) afford, agree, decide, expect, forget, help, hope, learn, need, offer, plan, pretend, promise, refuse, remember, seem, try, want, would like.

Use the infinitive (without to)

1. after most modal and auxiliary verbs.

I can’t drive. We must hurry.

2. after make and let

My parents didn’t let me go out last night.
She always makes me laugh.

Gerunds and infinitives form the negative with not, e.g. not to be, not being.
More verbs take the infinitive than the gerund.

These common verbs can take either the gerund or infinitive with no difference in meaning: begin, continue, prefer, start.


Click on the wrong form


Read the rules

Gerunds and Infinitives

Upper-Intermediate

Forget to call or forget calling — which is correct?

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Examples

Most people don’t fancy listening to classical music, but scientists have found that listening to classics has surprising benefits!

First, classical music encourages us to think more creatively.

Moreover, classical tunes can calm you down if you tend to party with loud music.

Are you bad at remembering things? Try listening to Bach and Beethoven music because their music can improve our memory.

Classical music is worth listening to. It makes us feel better and healthier.

Forms


Usage

❖ When two verbs go together, we can use an infinitive (go to sleep), a gerund (like sleeping) or a bare infinitive (can’t sleep) as the second verb.

Most people don’t fancy listening to classical music.

Classical music encourages us to think more creatively.

She avoids sitting next to Tom for some unknown reason.

When did you learn to play the flute?

I think you should get a new bike.

❖ Some verbs can be followed both by the gerund and the infinitive, but the meaning changes.



Common mistakes

Richard’s mum didn’t let him to play outside.

I suggest to cancel the meeting.

✔️ Richard’s mum didn’t let him play outside.

✔️ I suggest cancelling the meeting.

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Tell about something that…

  • you’ll never forget seeing for the first time.
  • you often forget to do before you go out.
  • you remember doing when you were under five years old.
  • you have to remember to do before you go to bed.
  • needs doing in your house / flat.
  • you need to do this evening.
  • you tried to learn but couldn’t.
  • you usually try doing when you can’t sleep at night.

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Answer the questions

  1. What images spring to mind when you hear the word «music»?
  2. What does music mean to you?
  3. What would life be like without music?
  4. Which is more important to you, music or TV?
  5. How have your musical tastes changed since when you were a kid?
  6. What’s the best time and place to listen to music?
  7. What decade has produced the best music?
  8. How varied are your musical tastes?
  9. What musical genres do you really hate?
  10. Do you agree with Shakespeare that music is the food of love?

Complete with the gerund or infinitive of a verb from the list

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Related videos

Click on the wrong form

✔️ Your hair needs cutting / to cut. It’s really long!


Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb

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Complete the sentences with the correct form of a verb from the list

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Read the text and choose the correct answer

Read the article quickly and answer the questions. Check what the highlighted words mean with your dictionary. Answer each question with one word.

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The hidden dangers of rock music

Pete Townshend, the legendary guitarist of the British band The Who, has confessed on his website that he is suffering from a musician’s nightmare: he is deaf. His hearing loss has meant that he has been unable to complete recording sessions for a new Who album. Townshend describes his hearing trouble as «terrible» and he gives the reason for his deafness as the rock music he has helped to invent and promote.

Although the volume at the group’s explosive concerts in the 1960s was excessive, Townshend does not think this is the main cause of his hearing loss. Instead he blames the earsplitting sounds emitted through studio headphones during years of recording. Although he can still hear speech, Townshend has to take a 36-hour break between recording sessions to allow his ears to recover. This is what is delaying the release of The Who’s first studio album for over 25 years, and plans for a world tour.

Musicians are particularly vulnerable to hearing loss. Phil Collins, 54, has suffered a 60 per cent hearing loss and the American rapper Foxy Brown, 26, is to undergo an operation to restore her hearing after going almost totally deaf.

However, it is not only the music makers who need to take care. Townshend has also issued a warning to users of MP3 players that they should turn the volume down. Doctors say that noise-induced hearing loss is caused when the delicate hair nerves of the ear suffer trauma from loud sound vibrations for long periods of time. Users of portable music players are advised to limit listening to one hour a day and keep the volume down, but research found that four out of ten young adults listened for longer.

Some consolation for musicians with hearing problems is that the German composer Beethoven continued writing music even when he went deaf. Unfortunately for Pete Townshend, it’s playing music that he is most worried about. «Music is my life. You can write it when you’re deaf, but you can’t hear it or perform it».


Read the article again and mark the sentences as True or False

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Use the highlighted words or phrases from the text (in the previous step) to complete the definitions

Listen to a critic talking about a documentary film. What is this film about?

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Presenter: … and continuing our overview of what’s on and where this week, we’re going to move on to films. Judith is here to tell us about a documentary that is showing at the independent cinema next week, Judith?
Judith: Yes, Robert. The documentary is called Alive Inside and it was made by Michael Rossalto Bennett, an alternative filmmaker from the United States. The documentary explores the positive effect that music can have on patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. It follows the progress of a social worker called Dan Cohen and his plan to introduce music in care homes in New York where people with Alzheimer’s are being looked after.
Presenter: How interesting. Tell us more.
Judith: In the documentary, we see how he visits the homes and meets some of the patients. What he does is to create a personalized playlist for the patients, which they can listen to on an MP3 player or an iPod. He finds out which songs to include by interviewing each patient’s family. By creating the playlist, he hopes that the patients will be able to travel back to the time to when they heard the songs and perhaps it will even help them remember important events in their past.
Presenter: And does it work?
Judith: Well, I’m giving away some of the story here, but yes, yes it does work. Cohen’s biggest success story is a man called Henry. Perhaps you’ve seen the clip about Henry on YouTube?
Presenter: No, I haven’t. What is it?
Judith: Oh, OK. Well, Henry is special because of the astonishing transformation that happens to him when he listens to his playlist for the first time. When we first see him, he is sitting in his chair with his head down and he’s barely capable of answering questions, except with a monosyllabic «yes» or «no». But when he’s given his headphones, he turns into a completely different person. His eyes open wide, his face lights up, and he starts moving to the music. He can even answer questions about the song he’s listening to. It’s actually quite emotional watching his reaction, which is probably why millions of people have seen that video clip I mentioned.
Presenter: It sounds like an amazing story, Judith. But do the playlists work for everybody?
Judith: They seem to work for most people, yes. And they have had a much wider effect than helping only individuals. At first, Cohen was worried that the iPods might isolate the patients as each one would be listening to his or her own set. But, in fact, the playlists are encouraging them to socialize. The staff in all four of the homes he worked with in New York reported that the music was helping the residents to talk to each other more. The patients would ask each other questions about the music, and in some cases, they wanted to share the different songs.
Presenter: What effect has Cohen’s work had on other care homes in the USA?
Judith: It’s too early to say what will happen in care homes in the whole country, but in New York, there have definitely been some changes. One of the greatest obstacles to the plan is the cost. MP3 players aren’t cheap, and providing one for every patient in each nursing home would just be too expensive. But Cohen is trying to get around this problem by asking people to donate any old MP3 players or iPods which they may have lying at home at the back of a drawer.
Presenter: Well, this sounds like a really worthwhile project, Judith. But what about the film? Would you recommend it?
Judith: Yes, definitely — especially if someone in your family suffers from Alzheimer’s. You’ll find it a great comfort.
Presenter: Thanks, Judith, for your recommendation. And just to remind you of the name of that documentary, it’s Alive Inside, and it’s showing in the Independent cinema from Monday to Saturday next week. And now it’s time to look at what’s on at the theatre…

Listen again and choose the right answer

Presenter: … and continuing our overview of what’s on and where this week, we’re going to move on to films. Judith is here to tell us about a documentary that is showing at the independent cinema next week, Judith?
Judith: Yes, Robert. The documentary is called Alive Inside and it was made by Michael Rossalto Bennett, an alternative filmmaker from the United States. The documentary explores the positive effect that music can have on patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. It follows the progress of a social worker called Dan Cohen and his plan to introduce music in care homes in New York where people with Alzheimer’s are being looked after.
Presenter: How interesting. Tell us more.
Judith: In the documentary, we see how he visits the homes and meets some of the patients. What he does is to create a personalized playlist for the patients, which they can listen to on an MP3 player or an iPod. He finds out which songs to include by interviewing each patient’s family. By creating the playlist, he hopes that the patients will be able to travel back to the time to when they heard the songs and perhaps it will even help them remember important events in their past.
Presenter: And does it work?
Judith: Well, I’m giving away some of the story here, but yes, yes it does work. Cohen’s biggest success story is a man called Henry. Perhaps you’ve seen the clip about Henry on YouTube?
Presenter: No, I haven’t. What is it?
Judith: Oh, OK. Well, Henry is special because of the astonishing transformation that happens to him when he listens to his playlist for the first time. When we first see him, he is sitting in his chair with his head down and he’s barely capable of answering questions, except with a monosyllabic «yes» or «no». But when he’s given his headphones, he turns into a completely different person. His eyes open wide, his face lights up, and he starts moving to the music. He can even answer questions about the song he’s listening to. It’s actually quite emotional watching his reaction, which is probably why millions of people have seen that video clip I mentioned.
Presenter: It sounds like an amazing story, Judith. But do the playlists work for everybody?
Judith: They seem to work for most people, yes. And they have had a much wider effect than helping only individuals. At first, Cohen was worried that the iPods might isolate the patients as each one would be listening to his or her own set. But, in fact, the playlists are encouraging them to socialize. The staff in all four of the homes he worked with in New York reported that the music was helping the residents to talk to each other more. The patients would ask each other questions about the music, and in some cases, they wanted to share the different songs.
Presenter: What effect has Cohen’s work had on other care homes in the USA?
Judith: It’s too early to say what will happen in care homes in the whole country, but in New York, there have definitely been some changes. One of the greatest obstacles to the plan is the cost. MP3 players aren’t cheap, and providing one for every patient in each nursing home would just be too expensive. But Cohen is trying to get around this problem by asking people to donate any old MP3 players or iPods which they may have lying at home at the back of a drawer.
Presenter: Well, this sounds like a really worthwhile project, Judith. But what about the film? Would you recommend it?
Judith: Yes, definitely — especially if someone in your family suffers from Alzheimer’s. You’ll find it a great comfort.
Presenter: Thanks, Judith, for your recommendation. And just to remind you of the name of that documentary, it’s Alive Inside, and it’s showing in the Independent cinema from Monday to Saturday next week. And now it’s time to look at what’s on at the theatre…

Try to remember the words

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1. complex
2. conventional
3. lecture
4. curious
5. (high) pitched
6. commit suicide
7. compare with
8. affect
9. exploit
10. tend


Match the words to complete the collocations

Read the instructions

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It’s hard not to associate certain pieces of music with certain people and times in your life. Write about 3-5 songs that will forever be linked with particular people / place / time in your life.

Write about 3-5 songs you’ll never forget. Use the instruction

Instructions

  1. Read the topic and the questions carefully.
  2. Plan what you are going to write about.
  3. Write 3 paragraphs: introduction, main body and conclusion.
  4. Check your essay before sending it for evaluation.
  5. Learn the rules and see the sample here.
  6. Please use Grammarly to avoid spelling and some grammar mistakes.

Wordlist

1. circumstance 5. falling pitch
2. intensify 6. irregular rhythm
3. light candles 7. exploit
4. high-pitched 8. scene

Урок Homework Курс
  • Warm-up
  • Why do we listen to music?
  • Music and emotions
  • What music would you play?
  • Gerunds and infinitives
  • Do you remember meeting?
  • Tell about something that...
  • What does music mean to you?
  • Get some practice 1
  • Get some practice 2
  • Gerund or infinitive
  • A friend's letter
  • Rock music
  • Words, words
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • More words to learn
  • Music I'll never forget