GE|Adults|Upper-Int|22. The meaning of Tingo

Answer the questions

1. What do these words have in common?

2. What languages have the words been borrowed from?

Match the words with the languages they come from





















English has borrowed many words and phrases from other languages.

  • Inuit [ˈınjuːıt] (= Eskimo ) — a race of people descended from the original people of Eastern Canada and Greenland.
  • Eskimo [‘eskɪməu] — is considered by many to be offensive.

Check what you know. Complete definitions with which, who, or whose and write the correct word

Revise the rule

Relative clauses

Defining relative clauses (giving essential information)

Julia’s the woman who/that works with me.

It’s a book which/that tells you how to relax.

That’s the house where I was born.

That’s the boy whose father is an artist.

He’s the man (who/that) I met on the plane.

🔹To give important information about a person, place, or thing use a relative clause (= a relative pronoun + subject + verb).

🔹Use the relative pronouns

who for people,

which for things/animals,

where for places.

Use whose to mean «of who» / «of which»‘.

🔹You can use that instead of who or which.

🔹Who, which, and that can be omitted when the verbs in the main clause and the relative clause have a different subject:

e.g. He’s the man I met on the plane.

(The subject of met is I, so it’s not necessary to put who.)

🔹We can use what as a pronoun to mean ‘the thing(s) that’.

e.g. I haven’t got many Oscar Wilde books, but you can borrow what I have.

We don’t use what as a relative pronoun. We use which.

e.g. This is the book which the lecturer mentioned.

Read about the book The meaning of Tingo. Complete the definitions with which, who, whose, or whom

  • Bakkushan [‘bʌ ku ‘ʃən]
  • Fucha [‘fuhə]
  • Lampadato [,lʌmpə ‘dʌtə]
  • Neko neko [ne ‘kɔ ne ‘kɔ]
  • Puntare [pun ‘tɑːre]
  • Rujuk [ru’dzju]
  • Seigneur-terrasse [siŋ ‘jɔ te ‘rɑːs]
  • Zechpreller [‘tseh prelə]
  • Zhengron [tse ge ‘lɔəŋ]

1. Which two sentences contain non-defining relative clauses (ones which add extra information to a sentence)?

2. In which sentences could you also use that?

3. In which sentences can you leave the relative pronoun out altogether?

4. Look at the definitions for Puntare and Rujuk. How does the position of the preposition affect the relative pronoun?

Read the rules


Defining and non-defining relative clauses


Hollywood celebrities, many of whom were nominated for Oscars this year, attended the premiere that took place last weekend.


Jack’s house, which he bought in 1998, is very important to him. This is the house where he got married and where his children were born. His wife, who is a decorator, added a lot of little details to the interior of the house, which made it even more cosy. Jack hopes to give the house to his children when they grow up.


Relative pronoun Example
Which (for things and animals) Have you read the book which I gave you last week?
Who (for people) This is the person who helped me yesterday.
When (for times) I talked to Jane at work today when we had a break.
Where (for places) Alex has a room where he keeps all his trophies.
Why (for reasons) I don’t know why you’re telling me this.
Whose (for possession) Stephen King, whose books became bestsellers many times, will be teaching a writing workshop next week.
Whom (for people as the object of the relative clause) We need to call back the man whom we interviewed last Friday.

Formal Informal

Do you remember Allie whom we met yesterday?


Do you remember Allie who we met yesterday?

Preposition + whom

I forgot to whom I need to address this letter

who + preposition at the end of the clause

I forgot who I need to address this letter to.

⇒ Where and when can be replaced with preposition + which.

In informal English, we can put the preposition at the end of the clause.


Relative Clauses give extra information about something or someone

Defining relative clauses give essential information (the sentence usually doesn’t make sense without the clause) Non-defining relative clauses give not essential, extra information (the sentence makes sense without the clause)
NOT separated by commas

I’m planning to redecorate the room where I work.

separated by commas

The first Harry Potter book, which came out in 1997, was translated into over 100 languages

who/which = that

The man who/that I talked to was a CEO of the company.

I don’t like the food which/that has too much sugar in it.

who/which ≠ that

My sister, who is a vet, really likes cats. (NOT My sister, that is a vet, really likes cats.)

Which can refer to the whole sentence.

We’re going to organise a Christmas fundraiser, which is a very good idea.

Rewrite the sentences in the correct way


Define more foreign words for your Teacher to guess


Make sure that you know what the words below mean. Then give their definitions for your teacher to guess them, saying which language they come from.

  1. caravan [‘kærəvæn] (Persian)
  2. blanket [ˈblæŋkit] (Dutch)
  3. embarrassed [imˈbærəst] (French)
  4. tsunami [tsu:ˈnɑ:mi] (Japanese)
  5. soprano [sə’prɑ:nəʊ] (Italian)
  6. massage [‘mæsɑ:ʒ] (Portuguese)
  7. mosquito [mɒs’ki:təʊ] (Spanish)
  8. fog [fɒg] (Danish)

Now swap roles. Listen to your teacher’s definitions and say what the word is

Discuss the questions, giving as many examples as you can

Get it right

giving examples

If you want to give examples when you are speaking English, you can use these phrases: for example, for instance, or such as.

e.g.English has borrowed many words from other languages, such as «shampoo» and «yogurt».

  • Bakkushan (Japanese) A woman who you think is pretty when you see her from behind, but is not when you see her from the front.
  • Drachenfutter (German) The presents which guilty husbands give their wives (literally «dragon’s food»).
  • Fucha (Polish) A job which you do in your free time without paying any tax.
  • Lampadato (Italian) An adjective to describe person whose skin has been tanned too much by a sun lamp.
  • Neko neko (Indonesian) To have a creative idea which only makes thing worse.
  • Puntare (Italian) To stare intensely at a person whom you are attracted to.
  • Rujuk (Indonesian) To remarry a woman to whom you had been married before.
  • Seigneur-terrasse (French) A person who spends a lot of time but very little money in a cafe.
  • Sunasorpok (Inuit) To eat food which other people have left.
  • Termangu-mangu (Indonesian) An adjective to describe a person who is sad and not sure what they should do.
  • Zechpreller (German) Someone who leaves without paying the bill.
  • Zhengron (Chinese) A person whose looks have been improved by plastic surgery.

1. Which three of the twelve words in «The meaning of Tingo» would you choose to add to your language? Why?

2. Think of five words or phrases that your language has borrowed from English.

🔗Look here (for Russian speakers).

3. Have these words been borrowed because there wasn’t an existing word for this concept in your language?

4. If not, why do you think this word or phrase is being used in your language?

5. How do you feel about these borrowed English words?

6. Can you think of any words/phrases which have been borrowed from other languages?

7. Can you think of two English words or phrases that don’t have an exact translation in your language? Why do you think that is?

8. Do you know any words in your language that don’t have an exact translation in English?

9. Do you have any favourite words in English? Why do you like them?


Click on the wrong relative pronouns. Sometimes two are possible. In which sentence can you leave out the relative pronoun?

Rewrite the sentences to make them more informal. Omit the Relative Pronoun wherever possible.

Complete the article with a sentence 1-6. There is one sentence you don’t need. Look at the highlighted words and phrases. Use your dictionary to look up their meaning and pronunciation.


  1. The photographs are then put in a drawer and forgotten.
  2. At the flick of a switch, the manufacturers claim, a woman can lose as much as a dress size.
  3. «But it did just enough to hide some of the evidence of a few too many good restaurant meals.»
  4. The only victim will be the truth.
  5. They don’t seem to notice that the lost weight seems to have mysteriously returned since the holiday.
  6. «It worked better than a four-week diet of raw vegetables.»

Match the definitions with the words

Try to remember the words

1. cab

2. cloak

3. plastic surgery

4. capture

5. flee

6. leave a tip

7. on the spot

8. slang

9. genuine

10. tile

Write the words opposite their transcription.

Урок Homework Курс
  • Warm-up
  • Relative clauses
  • Rule
  • The meaning of Tingo
  • Defining or non-defining
  • Exercises
  • What's the word?
  • Giving examples
  • Relative clauses
  • Omitting relative pronouns
  • Snaps
  • More words to learn