GE|Adults|Upper-Int|22. The meaning of Tingo
Answer the questions
1. What do these words have in common?
2. What languages have the words been borrowed from?
Match the words with the languages they come from
English has borrowed many words and phrases from other languages.
Check what you know. Complete definitions with which, who, or whose and write the correct word
Revise the rule
Defining relative clauses (giving essential information)
Julia’s the woman who/that works with me.
It’s a book which/that tells you how to relax.
That’s the house where I was born.
That’s the boy whose father is an artist.
He’s the man (who/that) I met on the plane.
🔹To give important information about a person, place, or thing use a relative clause (= a relative pronoun + subject + verb).
🔹Use the relative pronouns
who for people,
which for things/animals,
where for places.
Use whose to mean «of who» / «of which»‘.
🔹You can use that instead of who or which.
🔹Who, which, and that can be omitted when the verbs in the main clause and the relative clause have a different subject:
e.g. He’s the man I met on the plane.
(The subject of met is I, so it’s not necessary to put who.)
🔹We can use what as a pronoun to mean ‘the thing(s) that’.
e.g. I haven’t got many Oscar Wilde books, but you can borrow what I have.
We don’t use what as a relative pronoun. We use which.
e.g. This is the book which the lecturer mentioned.
Read about the book The meaning of Tingo. Complete the definitions with which, who, whose, or whom
1. Which two sentences contain non-defining relative clauses (ones which add extra information to a sentence)?
2. In which sentences could you also use that?
3. In which sentences can you leave the relative pronoun out altogether?
4. Look at the definitions for Puntare and Rujuk. How does the position of the preposition affect the relative pronoun?
Read the rules
Defining and non-defining relative clauses
Hollywood celebrities, many of whom were nominated for Oscars this year, attended the premiere that took place last weekend.
Jack’s house, which he bought in 1998, is very important to him. This is the house where he got married and where his children were born. His wife, who is a decorator, added a lot of little details to the interior of the house, which made it even more cosy. Jack hopes to give the house to his children when they grow up.
|Which (for things and animals)||Have you read the book which I gave you last week?|
|Who (for people)||This is the person who helped me yesterday.|
|When (for times)||I talked to Jane at work today when we had a break.|
|Where (for places)||Alex has a room where he keeps all his trophies.|
|Why (for reasons)||I don’t know why you’re telling me this.|
|Whose (for possession)||Stephen King, whose books became bestsellers many times, will be teaching a writing workshop next week.|
|Whom (for people as the object of the relative clause)||We need to call back the man whom we interviewed last Friday.|
Do you remember Allie whom we met yesterday?
Do you remember Allie who we met yesterday?
Preposition + whom
I forgot to whom I need to address this letter
|who + preposition at the end of the clause
I forgot who I need to address this letter to.
⇒ Where and when can be replaced with preposition + which.
In informal English, we can put the preposition at the end of the clause.
Relative Clauses give extra information about something or someone
|Defining relative clauses give essential information (the sentence usually doesn’t make sense without the clause)||Non-defining relative clauses give not essential, extra information (the sentence makes sense without the clause)|
|NOT separated by commas
I’m planning to redecorate the room where I work.
|separated by commas
The first Harry Potter book, which came out in 1997, was translated into over 100 languages
|who/which = that
The man who/that I talked to was a CEO of the company.
I don’t like the food which/that has too much sugar in it.
|who/which ≠ that
My sister, who is a vet, really likes cats. (NOT
|Which can refer to the whole sentence.
We’re going to organise a Christmas fundraiser, which is a very good idea.
Rewrite the sentences in the correct way
Define more foreign words for your Teacher to guess
Make sure that you know what the words below mean. Then give their definitions for your teacher to guess them, saying which language they come from.
- caravan [‘kærəvæn] (Persian)
- blanket [ˈblæŋkit] (Dutch)
- embarrassed [imˈbærəst] (French)
- tsunami [tsu:ˈnɑ:mi] (Japanese)
- soprano [sə’prɑ:nəʊ] (Italian)
- massage [‘mæsɑ:ʒ] (Portuguese)
- mosquito [mɒs’ki:təʊ] (Spanish)
- fog [fɒg] (Danish)
Now swap roles. Listen to your teacher’s definitions and say what the word is
Discuss the questions, giving as many examples as you can
Get it right
If you want to give examples when you are speaking English, you can use these phrases: for example, for instance, or such as.
e.g.English has borrowed many words from other languages, such as «shampoo» and «yogurt».
1. Which three of the twelve words in «The meaning of Tingo» would you choose to add to your language? Why?
2. Think of five words or phrases that your language has borrowed from English.
3. Have these words been borrowed because there wasn’t an existing word for this concept in your language?
4. If not, why do you think this word or phrase is being used in your language?
5. How do you feel about these borrowed English words?
6. Can you think of any words/phrases which have been borrowed from other languages?
7. Can you think of two English words or phrases that don’t have an exact translation in your language? Why do you think that is?
8. Do you know any words in your language that don’t have an exact translation in English?
9. Do you have any favourite words in English? Why do you like them?
Click on the wrong relative pronouns. Sometimes two are possible. In which sentence can you leave out the relative pronoun?
Rewrite the sentences to make them more informal. Omit the Relative Pronoun wherever possible.
Complete the article with a sentence 1-6. There is one sentence you don’t need. Look at the highlighted words and phrases. Use your dictionary to look up their meaning and pronunciation.
- The photographs are then put in a drawer and forgotten.
- At the flick of a switch, the manufacturers claim, a woman can lose as much as a dress size.
- «But it did just enough to hide some of the evidence of a few too many good restaurant meals.»
- The only victim will be the truth.
- They don’t seem to notice that the lost weight seems to have mysteriously returned since the holiday.
- «It worked better than a four-week diet of raw vegetables.»
Match the definitions with the words
Try to remember the words
Write the words opposite their transcription.
- Relative clauses
- The meaning of Tingo
- Defining or non-defining
- What's the word?
- Giving examples
- Relative clauses
- Omitting relative pronouns
- More words to learn