GE|Adults|Upper-Int|3. Are you sleep deprived?

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Answer the questions

1. Do you have any problems sleeping?

2. If you can’t fall asleep, do you… ?

a) read

b) make yourself a drink

c) take sleeping tablets

d) watch TV

3. Do you think you sleep enough?

  • be sleep deprived — suffering negative effects from not sleeping enough
  • to take a nap — when you sleep (usually for a short time) during the day
  • be energetic — full of energy
  • be refreshed — feeling fresh and not tired


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Choose the answer that describes you best

Are you sleep deprived?


Key

Calculate your score. The higher your score the more sleep deprived you are. The maximum is 14.

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Your score* means:

0-4 Excellent! You’re not at all sleep deprived. You may start to draft a plan for coming out of hibernation or go on the same way.
5-9 We strongly recommend that you make the following changes in your life habits:

— turn off the TV and/or other gadgets two hours before you go to bed and relax for at least an hour before bed;
— make sure your bedroom is dark and quiet and your bed is comfortable;
— go to bed and wake up at the same time every day;
— find the opportunity to have an everyday 40-minutes’ walk in the open air or other regular physical activity of your choice;
— give up alcohol.

To receive more advice you may pay a visit to a somnologist.

10-14 Keeping a regular schedule and avoiding certain habits can go a long way toward improving sleep and decreasing your risk of health problems. If this doesn’t work and the problem lingers, don’t hesitate to talk to your doctor. Hopefully, professional advice and some medical treatment would help to overcome the problem.
*IMPORTANT DISCLOSURE: please, consider that no animals were harmed in our scientific methodology tests, as we do not test our methodology on animals. Frankly speaking, we’ve not tested it at all, so it is your choice and your responsibility to follow or not to follow our recommendation.

Match the halves of the sentences

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Read the rules and examples

Used to, Be used to, Get used to

Upper-Intermediate

Jake used to smoke a lot, but he gave it up a few years ago. It was hard for him to get used to not smoking, but he is happy now.

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Examples

Rachel used to have short hair when she was a child. Now she’s an adult and she grew her hair very long. It was hard at first to get used to washing her hair every day. She used to just let her hair dry on its own, but now she‘s used to drying and brushing it for hours. She also had to get used to using lots of special hair masks and conditioners. Now she‘s used to her new hair and she has got used to spending a lot of money every month on all the hair products. She used to have the same hairstyle all the time, but now she‘s used to changing her style every day.

Forms

Used to + infinitive

When I was younger I used to practice swimming every day.

May didn’t use to worry about rent before she started living alone.

Did you use to do any sports when you were at school?

Be/get used to + V-ing/noun

I’m used to long commutes to the office.

Sally might never get used to living in a hot country.

Are you used to speaking English by now?

Usage

  • We use used to to talk about past habits and states (especially distant past), usually to show contrast with the present

My parents used to be very reckless before I was born.

This town didn’t use to have an airport 10 years ago.

! For actions we can also use would

When I was 5, my grandmother would take me to the park every day. = When I was 5, my grandmother used to take me to the park every day.

  • We use be used to to describe a state of being familiar with something.

At first I didn’t enjoy having a brother but now I’m used to it.

Andy lives in a big city, so he is used to hearing lots of noises at nights.

  • We use get used to to describe the process of becoming familiar with something.

We really can’t get used to living in a village.

Ever since I changed my job, it has been hard to get used to my new schedule.

Common mistakes

I’m use to get up early every morning.

✔️ I’m used to getting up early every morning.

I’m sure William will used to his new apartment.

✔️ I’m sure William will get used to his new apartment.

Mark the sentences as Right or Wrong. Correct the wrong highlighted phrases

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Example: She isn’t used to have a big dinner in the evening.

🔹Right
🔹Wrong ⇒ isn’t used to having


Complete with used to, be used to, or get used to and the verbs in boxes

✔️ He’s Spanish so he’s (drive) used to driving on the right.


Listen and write down six sentences. Practise saying the sentences quickly, trying to link the words.

Two of the most common rules for linking words are:

  • When a word ends in a consonant sound and is followed by a word which begins with a vowel sound, e.g. get up early, the words are linked together and pronounced [getʌpɜ:li:].
  • When a word ends in a consonant sound and is followed by a word beginning with the same consonant sound, e.g. used (which ends in [t]) and to (which begins with [t]), the sounds are «elided», i.e. they are linked together, and the [t] sound is only made once, so used to = [ju:stə].


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He used to get up at eight, but he doesn’t anymore. I’m not used to sleeping until ten in the morning. She usually switches on the TV as soon as she gets home. I’ll never get used to living alone. He’s not used to playing to big audiences. It took me ages to get used to having lunch at twelve.


Answer the questions

  1. When you were a child did you use to be frightened of the dark?
  2. Did you use to share a room with a brother or sister?
  3. Do you find it difficult to sleep when you’re in a bed that you’re not used to, for example, in a hotel?
  4. Do you think you could get used to working at night and sleeping during the day?
  5. What do you usually do as soon as you wake up in the morning?
  6. What’s the last thing you usually do before going to bed?

Read and listen to the text

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Sleepy people — the dangers of sleep deprivation

Do this test tonight when you go to bed. Put a plate on the floor next to your bed. Lie down with one hand hanging over the bed holding a spoon above the plate. When you fall asleep, the spoon will fall on the plate and should wake you up. If you don’t wake up until the next day, it probably means you are «sleep deprived».

We live in a world of tired, sleep deprived people. «>This is the theory of behavioural biologist Paul Martin. In his book Counting Sheep, he describes a society which is just too busy to sleep and which does not give sleeping the importance it deserves. We all know the importance of having a healthy diet and doing exercise, but we don’t worry enough about sleeping the hours we need. Paul Martin says: «We might live longer and happier lives if we took our beds as seriously as our running shoes.»


Sleepy people — the dangers of sleep deprivation

Do this test tonight when you go to bed. Put a plate on the floor next to your bed. Lie down with one hand hanging over the bed holding a spoon above the plate. When you fall asleep, the spoon will fall on the plate and should wake you up. If you don’t wake up until the next day, it probably means you are «sleep deprived».

We live in a world of tired, sleep deprived people. «This is the theory of behavioural biologist Paul Martin. In his book Counting Sheep, he describes a society which is just too busy to sleep and which does not give sleeping the importance it deserves. We all know the importance of having a healthy diet and doing exercise, but we don’t worry enough about sleeping the hours we need. Paul Martin says: «We might live longer and happier lives if we took our beds as seriously as our running shoes.»


Answer the questions

1. What exactly is the test and what does it show?

2. Who is Paul Martin?

3. What is his book called?

4. What is his theory?

5. What does the last sentence mean?

Listen and read the text

  • round the clock — all day and all night
  • to tempt — something that tempts you attracts you and makes you want it, even though it may be wrong or harmful
  • sleep debt — sleep owed to us, i.e. number of hours of sleep we haven’t had in a week
  • habitually [hə’bɪʧuəlɪ] — constantly or as a habit
  • to consume — eat or drink something
  • up to a point — to some extent but not completely
  • to mask [mɑːsk] — if one thing masks another, it prevents people from noticing or recognizing the other thing


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Listen to the audio and do the exercise.

So much to do, so little time

Hours slept at night:

  • Lawyers — 7.8
  • Architects — 7.5
  • Social workers — 6.9
  • Teachers — 6
  • Politicians — 5.2
  • Hospital doctors (on call) — 4.5

UK Sleep Council survey

Modern society has invented reasons not to sleep. We are a 24/7 society where shops and services must be available all hours. We spend longer at work than we used to, and more time getting to work. Mobile phones and emails allow us to stay in touch round the clock and late-night TV and the Internet tempt us away from our beds. When we need more time for work or pleasure, the easy solution is to sleep less. The average adult sleeps only 6.2 hours a night during the week, whereas research shows that most people need eight or even eight and a half hours’ sleep to feel at their best. Nowadays many people have got used to sleeping less than they need and they live in an almost permanent state of «sleep debt», owing their bodies perhaps 25–30 hours of sleep.

Going against nature
Until the invention of electric light in 1879 our daily cycle of sleep used to depend on the hours of daylight. People would get up with the sun and go to bed at nightfall. But nowadays our hours of sleep are mainly determined by our working hours (or our social life) and most people are woken up artificially by an alarm clock. During the day caffeine, the world’s most popular drug, helps to keep us awake. 75% of the world’s population habitually consume caffeine which, up to a point, masks the symptoms of sleep deprivation.


So much to do, so little time

Modern society has invented reasons not to sleep. We are a 24/7 society where shops and services must be available all hours. We spend longer at work than we used to, and more time getting to work. Mobile phones and emails allow us to stay in touch round the clock and late-night TV and the Internet tempt us away from our beds. When we need more time for work or pleasure, the easy solution is to sleep less. The average adult sleeps only 6.2 hours a night during the week, whereas research shows that most people need eight or even eight and a half hours’ sleep to feel at their best. Nowadays many people have got used to sleeping less than they need and they live in an almost permanent state of «sleep debt», owing their bodies perhaps 25–30 hours of sleep.

Going against nature

Until the invention of electric light in 1879 our daily cycle of sleep used to depend on the hours of daylight. People would get up with the sun and go to bed at nightfall. But nowadays our hours of sleep are mainly determined by our working hours (or our social life) and most people are woken up artificially by an alarm clock. During the day caffeine, the world’s most popular drug, helps to keep us awake. 75% of the world’s population habitually consume caffeine which, up to a point, masks the symptoms of sleep deprivation.


Answer the questions

  1. How did the invention of electric light change our sleep habits?
  2. How much does the average person sleep? Does it vary according to profession?
  3. What is our «sleep debt»?
  4. What is the world’s most popular drug?
  5. Do people sleep more or less than they used to? Why?
  6. How much sleep does the average person need?

Listen and read the text

  • irritable [‘ɪrɪtəbl] — having or showing a tendency to be easily annoyed
  • to reduce — make smaller or less in amount, degree, or size
  • implications — the implications of something are the things that are likely to happen as a result
  • on night call — able to be contacted at night in order to provide a medical service if necessary
  • nuclear accident — an accident that emit a certain level of radiation, which could harm public health
  • to impair [ɪm’pɛə] — weaken or damage something


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Listen to the audio and do the exercise.

Sleepy people

What does a chronic lack of sleep do to us? As well as making us irritable and unhappy as people it also reduces our motivation and ability to work. This has serious implications for society in general. Doctors, for example, are often chronically sleep deprived, especially when they are on «night call» and may get less than three hours’ sleep. Lack of sleep can seriously impair their mood, judgement, and ability to take decisions. Our politicians are often «jet lagged» after crossing time zones. World summit meetings called to deal with a crisis often result in decisions being taken after marathon sessions when everyone is severely sleep deprived. Human error caused by tiredness contributed to the worst nuclear accident in history at Chernobyl in 1986. Tired engineers, in the early hours of the morning, made a series of mistakes with catastrophic results. On our roads and motorways lack of sleep kills thousands of people every year. Tests show that a tired driver can be just as dangerous as a drunk driver. However, driving when drunk is against the law but driving when exhausted isn’t. As Paul Martin says, it is very ironic that we admire people who function on very little sleep instead of criticizing them for being irresponsible. Our world would be a much safer, happier place if everyone, whatever their job, slept eight hours a night.

Sleep tips

  1. Give sleep a high priority in your life.
  2. Listen to your body. If you feel tired, you probably need more sleep.
  3. Pay off your «sleep debt» by going to bed half an hour earlier for a few weeks.
  4. Have a regular routine — try to go to bed at roughly the same time every day.
  5. Take a nap during the day (ideally after lunch). Research has shown that short naps are very effective in restoring our energy levels and mood.
  6. Make sure your bedroom isn’t too hot.
  7. Don’t use your bedroom as an office or for watching TV.

Sleepy people

What does a chronic lack of sleep do to us? As well as making us irritable and unhappy as people it also reduces our motivation and ability to work. This has serious implications for society in general. Doctors, for example, are often chronically sleep deprived, especially when they are on «night call» and may get less than three hours’ sleep. Lack of sleep can seriously impair their mood, judgement, and ability to take decisions. Our politicians are often «jet lagged» after crossing time zones. World summit meetings called to deal with a crisis often result in decisions being taken after marathon sessions when everyone is severely sleep deprived. Human error caused by tiredness contributed to the worst nuclear accident in history at Chernobyl in 1986. Tired engineers, in the early hours of the morning, made a series of mistakes with catastrophic results. On our roads and motorways lack of sleep kills thousands of people every year. Tests show that a tired driver can be just as dangerous as a drunk driver. However, driving when drunk is against the law but driving when exhausted isn’t. As Paul Martin says, it is very ironic that we admire people who function on very little sleep instead of criticizing them for being irresponsible. Our world would be a much safer, happier place if everyone, whatever their job, slept eight hours a night.

Sleep tips

  1. Give sleep a high priority in your life.
  2. Listen to your body. If you feel tired, you probably need more sleep.
  3. Pay off your «sleep debt» by going to bed half an hour earlier for a few weeks.
  4. Have a regular routine — try to go to bed at roughly the same time every day.
  5. Take a nap during the day (ideally after lunch). Research has shown that short naps are very effective in restoring our energy levels and mood.
  6. Make sure your bedroom isn’t too hot.
  7. Don’t use your bedroom as an office or for watching TV.

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Discuss these questions

1. Do you agree with Paul Martin that we live in a sleep deprived society?

2. Do you think it’s wrong that doctors who are on «night call» sleep so little?

3. Do you think it should be illegal to drive when you are too tired?

4. What do you think are the best three Sleep tips?


  • irritable [‘ɪrɪtəbl] — having or showing a tendency to be easily annoyed
  • to reduce — make smaller or less in amount, degree, or size
  • implications — the implications of something are the things that are likely to happen as a result
  • on night call — able to be contacted at night in order to provide a medical service if necessary
  • nuclear accident — an accident that emit a certain level of radiation, which could harm public health
  • to impair [ɪm’pɛə] — weaken or damage something

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Build questions and answer them

Example: Do you think you could get used to always working at night?

  1. (always work) at night?
  2. (behave) well at primary school?
  3. (hate) any particular food when you were a child?
  4. (have) a favourite toy?
  5. (have) a siesta after lunch?
  6. (have) breakfast in the mornings?
  7. (live) in the UK or the USA?
  8. (remember) your classmates birthdays?
  9. (not eat) any sweet things?
  10. (prefer) playing indoors or outdoors when you were a child?
  11. (read) a daily newspaper or news website?
  12. (live) without your mobile phone?

Choose the correct answer

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Rewrite the sentences using a form of get used to, used to, or be used to

Read the article and answer the questions. Complete it with the missing sentences. Look at the highlighted words and phrases. Use your dictionary to look up their meaning and pronunciation.

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  • What was the object of the reality show?
  • Why were there complaints about the show?

  1. Every time one of them fell asleep, the jackpot went down.
  2. The first of these was a relaxing massage in the early hours of the morning.
  3. The TV company insists that the contestants’ welfare was carefully considered throughout the programme.
  4. On the third day one of the participants requested to leave the contest voluntarily.
  5. The last one to fall asleep would claim the £97,000 prize.


Match the highlighted words and phrases with the correct definition

Example: Experiences of hearing or seeing things that aren’t really there — hallucinations.

Listen to a radio programme about how diet affects sleep and choose the best answer. The dietician gives advice about…in order to sleep well.

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Presenter: Hello and welcome to the programme. Now, we all know that the amount of sleep you get each night can affect your work and your ability to interact with others. Health specialists say that the amount of sleep the average person needs is between seven and nine hours per night. Some new research suggests that diet plays an important role in whether we get a good night’s sleep or not. Dietician Richard Vickers is here with us in the studio to tell us more. Good morning, Richard, and welcome to the programme.
Richard: Hello, Holly.
Presenter: So, Richard, we all know that coffee tends to keep us awake at night.
Richard: What else should we avoid at dinner time? Well, actually. Holly, it isn’t only coffee that can disturb sleep; it is any food or beverage that contains caffeine, for example chocolate, or tea, or many soft drinks. Of course, caffeine doesn’t affect everybody in the same way, but if you are sensitive to it, you should avoid it in the afternoon and in the evening. That way, it won’t keep you awake at night. Is there anything else that can potentially stop us sleeping?
Richard: Yes, there is. Your sleep can be disturbed if your dinner has a high fat content. The body takes a long time to digest fat, which can make you feel very uncomfortable when you go to bed. People who have extra butter on their bread or cream with their dessert often complain of heartburn or indigestion when they go to bed.
Presenter: That makes sense. So, does it make a difference what time you have dinner compared to the time you go to bed?
Richard: Yes, it does. People who suffer from heartburn or indigestion should avoid eating late at all costs. Lying down with a full stomach makes it much more difficult for the body to digest food, causing discomfort and sometimes pain. In fact, eating late can affect all kinds of people, so, in general, I wouldn’t recommend it. The same can be said of the quantity you have. Heavy meals should be consumed at lunch time, and you should aim to be eating a light snack in the evening. This will fill a gap, so that you aren’t hungry when you go to bed, but it won’t make you feel so full that you can’t sleep. Richard, we’ve talked about the amount of food we should and shouldn’t eat. What about liquids?
Presenter: Well, for a good night’s sleep, you’re obviously better off drinking water with your dinner. But you shouldn’t drink too much of that, either. Don’t drink too much at dinner time or after dinner, or your sleep will be disrupted because you will have to go to the bathroom during the night. Right. So much for what we shouldn’t do. Is there anything that will actually help us go to sleep at night? Yes, there is — milk. Milk contains a special substance that affects the way that certain hormones in the brain work. One of these hormones is serotonin, which helps us fall asleep. This is why members of the older generation often have a hot, milky drink before they go to bed. Is there anything else that can help? Yes, there’s a herb called valerian, which seems to work quite well. Research has shown that substances in the root of the valerian plant relax the central nervous system and the muscles. You can take it in liquid or tablet form or you can make a tea out of it. People who have used valerian have said that it has helped them fall asleep quicker and it has given them a deep and satisfying rest. It sounds like valerian might be the answer, then. I’m afraid that’s all we’ve got time for today, Richard. Thank you so much for joining us.
Richard: My pleasure.

Listen again and complete the notes

Presenter: Hello and welcome to the programme. Now, we all know that the amount of sleep you get each night can affect your work and your ability to interact with others. Health specialists say that the amount of sleep the average person needs is between seven and nine hours per night. Some new research suggests that diet plays an important role in whether we get a good night’s sleep or not. Dietician Richard Vickers is here with us in the studio to tell us more. Good morning, Richard, and welcome to the programme.
Richard: Hello, Holly.
Presenter: So, Richard, we all know that coffee tends to keep us awake at night.
Richard: What else should we avoid at dinner time? Well, actually. Holly, it isn’t only coffee that can disturb sleep; it is any food or beverage that contains caffeine, for example chocolate, or tea, or many soft drinks. Of course, caffeine doesn’t affect everybody in the same way, but if you are sensitive to it, you should avoid it in the afternoon and in the evening. That way, it won’t keep you awake at night. Is there anything else that can potentially stop us sleeping?
Richard: Yes, there is. Your sleep can be disturbed if your dinner has a high fat content. The body takes a long time to digest fat, which can make you feel very uncomfortable when you go to bed. People who have extra butter on their bread or cream with their dessert often complain of heartburn or indigestion when they go to bed.
Presenter: That makes sense. So, does it make a difference what time you have dinner compared to the time you go to bed?
Richard: Yes, it does. People who suffer from heartburn or indigestion should avoid eating late at all costs. Lying down with a full stomach makes it much more difficult for the body to digest food, causing discomfort and sometimes pain. In fact, eating late can affect all kinds of people, so, in general, I wouldn’t recommend it. The same can be said of the quantity you have. Heavy meals should be consumed at lunch time, and you should aim to be eating a light snack in the evening. This will fill a gap, so that you aren’t hungry when you go to bed, but it won’t make you feel so full that you can’t sleep. Richard, we’ve talked about the amount of food we should and shouldn’t eat. What about liquids?
Presenter: Well, for a good night’s sleep, you’re obviously better off drinking water with your dinner. But you shouldn’t drink too much of that, either. Don’t drink too much at dinner time or after dinner, or your sleep will be disrupted because you will have to go to the bathroom during the night. Right. So much for what we shouldn’t do. Is there anything that will actually help us go to sleep at night? Yes, there is — milk. Milk contains a special substance that affects the way that certain hormones in the brain work. One of these hormones is serotonin, which helps us fall asleep. This is why members of the older generation often have a hot, milky drink before they go to bed. Is there anything else that can help? Yes, there’s a herb called valerian, which seems to work quite well. Research has shown that substances in the root of the valerian plant relax the central nervous system and the muscles. You can take it in liquid or tablet form or you can make a tea out of it. People who have used valerian have said that it has helped them fall asleep quicker and it has given them a deep and satisfying rest. It sounds like valerian might be the answer, then. I’m afraid that’s all we’ve got time for today, Richard. Thank you so much for joining us.
Richard: My pleasure.

Try to remember the words

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1. crane
2. be in debt
3. fire brigade
4. ladder
5. have a lack (of)
6. deprived
7. crawl
8. sleepwalk
9. stay in touch
10. tempt

Match the words to complete the collocations

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Complete the sentences with one of the words or phrases from the previous step. Change grammar form if it’s necessary.

Read the instructions

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Find your 🔗lost sleep and read the 🔗article on 13 signs which indicate you are sleep-deprived.

Think over the questions:

  1. Do you think sleeping patterns changed over the years? How?
  2. Are there a lot of sleep-deprived people now?
  3. Do you ever think sleep wastes valuable time spent doing useful things?
  4. What are you like if you don’t get enough sleep?
  5. What are some key things people should do in order to get a good night’s sleep? Give some tips.

Answer the questions in writing. Use words from the list

1. sleep deprived
2. nap
3. energetic
4. refreshed
5. round the clock
6. tempt
7. sleep debt
8. up to a point
9. mask
10. irritable
11. habitually
12. reduce
13. implications
14. nuclear accident
15. on night call
16. impair
17. behavioural biologist

Instructions

  1. Read the topic and the questions carefully.
  2. Plan what you are going to write about.
  3. Write the text according to your plan.
  4. Check your writing before sending it for evaluation.
  5. Learn the rules and see the sample here.
  6. Please use Grammarly to avoid spelling and some grammar mistakes.

Урок Homework Курс
  • Warm-up
  • Are you sleep deprived?
  • Grammar
  • Practice 1
  • Practice 2
  • Linking words
  • The dangers of sleep deprivation
  • Going against nature
  • Sleep tips
  • Express your opinion
  • Did you use to...?
  • Grammar challenge
  • What will they think of next?
  • Diet affects sleep
  • More words to learn
  • Expand your vocabulary
  • Are you sleep deprived?