IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 10|1. Old and new
Compare and contrast these two cities, using the photos for ideas. Focus on architecture, transportation and demography (changes in the population).
1. Read the prompt card and listen to the recording. Is everything the candidate says relevant to the task? Is her register appropriate?
|Describe a city that you know well.|
|You should say:|
|and explain what you particularly like or dislike about this city.|
2. Listen again and tick the words you hear. Check you understand all the words, using a dictionary if necessary.
foundations rapid transit system
3. After class, prepare brief notes about a city of your choice for the task in exercise 1. Practise talking for at least a minute, and try to use some of this useful language from the recording.
- By… I mean …
- That is to say…
- How can I put it?
- To put it another way…
- Of course …
- It goes without saying that…
1. Read the passage quickly without stopping. Underline any words or phrases that are unfamiliar to you as you read. When you have finished, compare your underlinings in groups and discuss possible meaning.
💡You can use 🔗Page Marker to do this task.
* about 675 words
SHANGHAI: THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE
Shanghai is now the world’s most densely populated city, according to Wu Jiang, deputy director of the city’s urban planning administration bureau. ‘Ten million people are living in central Shanghai and another ten in the suburbs. We made mistakes and now we are establishing several plans that will control the development of new skyscrapers and deal with the problems they have created.’ Shanghai has been rising faster and higher than any city in the history of the world, but this is proving too much for the ground beneath to bear. ‘Shanghai’s ground condition is very soft,’ says architect Kuo-Liang Lee. ‘The rock bed is about 300 metres from the surface and the underground water table is higher, only 1.5 metres at most from the surface. There are now more than 4,000 buildings over 100 metres tall in Shanghai. That results in extremely severe ground settlement.’
This is just one of the reasons why Wu Jiang and his colleagues are trying to halt the annexation of Shanghai’s skies. Other factors are dearth of greenery, serious pollution, inadequate transport and overcrowding on the streets of the city. Among the planned solutions are a metro system, a huge motorway network and an attempt at massive greening of the choking and dusty streets.
Several of the existing skyscrapers are among the tallest human constructions ever built and some of them are also among the most impressive in architectural terms. The 420-metre-high Jin Mao Tower, for example, is an extraordinary skyscraper, emblematic of the successful mingling of western and eastern styles. It reflects Chinese pagoda design, while at the same time echoing the art deco style of Manhattan’s most beautiful skyscrapers. A hotel occupies its upper 36 floors and spectacular views are offered on the 88th floor observation deck, both of the city outside and looking down the hollow insides of the building — not recommended for those suffering from vertigo!
Alongside these architectural wonders, however, are the less attractive results of the 21st-century building boom. Thomas Chow, co-director of the Shanghai-based Surv architecture and design practice, recently presented a paper to the Shanghai Design Biennale entitled ‘Five Ways to Ruin a City’. In it. he suggested that the city’s ill-considered and rapid growth had made it barely habitable. ‘In downtown Lujiazhui in Pudong, the scale is hostile and everything appears to have been enlarged on a photocopier; towers are towering, boulevards are 12 lanes wide (and uncrossable), without any relationship to human scale, activity or urban life,’ he wrote. Worse yet, he argued. Shanghai’s character was being obliterated in favour of cheap and tacky design solutions without creativity or soul. In Chow’s view, ‘The market’s rapid pace of wholesale importation of foreign imagery has resulted in a scary, perverse and at times ridiculous trend of turning modern cities into Disney-lands. The urban landscape is being littered with wholesale copies and replications of foreign styles.’
Wu Jiang wants to change all that. He talks excitedly of reducing plot ratios and making central Shanghai green and pleasant. ‘If we want Shanghai to be the best city in the world, it’s impossible to carry on with this kind of building. You can’t reduce that density through political power. You have to make it attractive for people to leave and live in new cities nearby.’ And so, on the outskirts of Shanghai, connected by massive new motorways and rapid transit railways, ten new cities, each of one million people and each with ten satellite towns of 200,000 people, are being built. One, New Harbour City, will have the biggest docks in the world; another, An Ting, will be a huge car manufacturing city; a third, called Song Jiang, will be a university centre.
Thus Shanghai hopes to build itself out of the problem that it has built itself into. At a pace unparalleled in the rest of the world, it is again racing down the track to a brighter future.
2. Complete each sentence with the correct ending.
0 According to Wu Jiang, the population of Shanghai is around 20 million, _with half of these living downtown._
1. Study the way these linking words are used in the passage.
- Other factors;
- One … another… a third;
- Worse yet;
2. Use the linkers in the box to complete the summary of the conference in Bogota.
|a third alongside among another|
|but also not only one thus|
1. Where were the world’s first cities established? Using the pictures and the words below, describe favoured locations and explain their advantages to early settlers.
agriculture defensive position invader irrigation livestock resources
2. You are going to hear part of a lecture on the ancient Sumerian cities of Ur and Uruk. Before you listen, read the summary below and decide what information you need to listen for to fill the spaces.
Then listen and answer questions 1-9 with words you hear in the recording.
Complete the summary below.
Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD AND / OR A NUMBER for each answer.
1. Complete these extracts from the recording (ex.2 Listening block) with a word related to a word from the box.
archaeology culture extend settle strategy surround
EXAMPLE: From the extensive work of Woolley and his team.
2. The passage contains the expressions wide-eyed and a real eye-opener, which are to do with observation and revelation. Match the expressions in italics with correct verbs.
check ignore agree guard, look after observe first-hand
attract attention see be more complicated
1. The beginning of this sentence from the recording contains ‘inversion’.
Hardly had the Third Dynasty begun when it was brought to an abrupt end by invaders.
What is the stylistic effect of starting the sentence in this way, instead of saying:
The Third Dynasty had hardly begun when …
Here are some more examples of inversion. Click on the words defining the subject and describe its position in each sentence.
Inversion means that a verb comes before the subject of a sentence. It is most common in questions, but it also occurs in certain other structures.
In most forms of inversion, an auxiliary verb or to be comes before the subject, as in most questions.
After so when it stands for part of a sentence
The water supply failed, and so did food production.
After negative and degree adverbs
Certain adverbs and adverbial phrases can be moved to the beginning of the clause for emphasis. These are usually negative in meaning, or are adverbs of degree (e.g. only, little).
Not only did the water supply fail, but so did food production.
Under no circumstances will access to the ruins be allowed.
No sooner was the building finished than it was demolished.
Little do we know how much history lies beneath these new skyscrapers.
In third conditional clauses
This is fairly formal.
Had the city defences been repaired in time, the flood might have been prevented. (= If the city defences had been repaired in time …)
After place adverbs
When a place adverb or adverbial phrase is moved to the beginning of the sentence, the main verb can be placed before the subject if it is in a simple tense.
Here comes the next party of tourists.
Beyond the city boundaries lived a farming community.
2. Rewrite the sentences without the inversion of the adverb.
|EXAMPLE:||Hardly could the gallery cope with the sudden influx of visitors.
The gallery could, hardly cope with the sudden influx of visitors.
3. Put the following sentences in order, starting with the adverbs given in brackets.
EXAMPLE: the new bridge / had to be declared / before / unsafe / had been used / it (Barely)
Barely had the new bridge been used before it had to he declared unsafe.
4. Join the ideas in 1-7 and a-g using Not only… and adding a word or phrase from the box.
a further also as well too
EXAMPLE: 1 c Not only did Paris put in a bid for the 2012 Olympics, Madrid did too.
|a 10 million live in its suburbs.||b It was close to the Tigris.||c Madrid did.||d The countryside nearby is very beautiful.|
|e There are several museums.||f They are sometimes poorly constructed.||g It encourages the use of bicycles wherever possible.|
5. Instead of the example in exercise 4, we could say: Paris put in a bid for the 2012 Olympics and so did Madrid.
Join these sentences in the same way.
tacky /ˈtæk.i/ adjective LOW QUALITY
- INFORMAL DISAPPROVING of cheap quality or in bad style
The shop sold tacky souvenirs and ornaments.
subsidence /səbˈsaɪ.d ə n t s/ , /ˈsʌb.sɪ-/ noun [ U ]
when land or buildings sink to a lower level
The building had to be demolished because of subsidence.
bear /beə r / /ber/ verb bore, borne or US ALSO born SUPPORT
- [ T ] to hold or support something
The chair, too fragile to bear her weight, collapsed.
halt /hɒlt/ /hɑːlt/ verb [ I or T ]
to (cause to) stop moving or doing something or happening
«Halt!» called the guard. «You can’t go any further without a permit.»
Production has halted at all of the company’s factories because of the pay dispute.
Security forces halted the demonstrators by blocking the road.
annexation /ˌæn.ekˈseɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ]
possession taken of a piece of land or a country, usually by force or without permission
The country’s annexation of its neighbour caused an outcry.
dearth /dɜːθ/ /dɝːθ/ noun [ S ] FORMAL
an amount or supply which is not large enough; a lack
a dearth of new homes in the region
hoke /tʃəʊk/ /tʃoʊk/ verb STOP BREATHING
- [ I or T ] If you choke, or if something chokes you, you stop breathing because something is blocking your throat
She choked to death on a fish bone.
Children can choke on peanuts.
Peanuts can choke a small child.
vertigo /ˈvɜː.tɪ.gəʊ/ /ˈvɝː.t ə.goʊ ̬ / noun [ U ]
a feeling of spinning round and being unable to balance, caused by looking down from a height
She can’t stand heights and has always suffered from vertigo.
obliterate /əˈblɪt. ə r.eɪt/ /-ˈblɪt.̬ə.reɪt/ verb
- [ T often passive ] to remove all signs of something, either by destroying it or by covering it so that it cannot be seen
The missile strike was devastating — the target was totally obliterated.
All of a sudden the view was obliterated by the fog.
perverse /pəˈvɜːs/ /pɚˈvɝːs/ adjective DISAPPROVING
strange and not what most people would expect or enjoy
Jack was being perverse and refusing to agree with anything we said.
She took a perverse pleasure in hearing that her sister was getting divorced.
wholesale /ˈhəʊl.seɪl/ /ˈhoʊl-/ adjective , adverb SELLING
- of or for the selling of goods in large amounts at low prices to shops and businesses, rather than the selling of goods in shops to customers
a wholesale supplier/business
We only sell wholesale, not to the public.
irrigation /ˌɪr.ɪˈgeɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ U ]
to supply land with water so that crops and plants will grow
livestock /ˈlaɪv.stɒk/ /-stɑːk/ plural noun
animals, such as cows and sheep, and birds, such as chickens, kept on a farm
nomadic /nə ʊ ˈmæd.ɪk/ /noʊ-/ adjective
moving from one place to another rather than living in one place all of the time
arid /ˈær.ɪd/ /ˈer-/ adjective
- very dry and without enough rain for plants
The desert is so arid that nothing can grow there.
fertile /ˈfɜː.taɪl/ /ˈfɝː.t̬ə l/ adjective LAND
- describes land that can produce a large number of good quality crops
artisan /ˈɑː.tɪ.zæn/ /ˈɑːr.t̬ɪ-/ noun [ C ]
a person who does skilled work with his or her hands
stem from sth phrasal verb
to start or develop as the result of something
Her problems stem from her difficult childhood.
Their disagreement stemmed from a misunderstanding.
confluence /ˈkɒn.fluː. ə n t s/ /ˈkɑːn-/ noun [ C ] SPECIALIZED
the place where two rivers flow together and become one larger river
diminish /dɪˈmɪn.ɪʃ/ verb [ I or T ]
to reduce or be reduced in size or importance
I don’t want to diminish her achievements, but she did have a lot of help.
These memories will not be diminished by time.
We’ve seen our house diminish greatly/sharply/substantially in value over the last six months.
relegate /ˈrel.ɪ.geɪt/ verb [ T ]
- to put someone or something into a lower or less important rank or position
She resigned when she was relegated to a desk job.
The story was relegated to the middle pages of the paper.
first-hand , firsthand /ˌfɜːs t ˈhænd/ /ˌfɝːs t -/ adverb
If you experience something first-hand, you experience it yourself
Most of the older reporters have experienced war first-hand.
see eye to eye
If two people see eye to eye, they agree with each other
My sisters don’t see eye to eye with me about the arrangements.
turn a blind eye
to ignore something that you know is wrong
Management often turn a blind eye to bullying in the workplace.
cast an/your eye over sth
to look quickly at something
Could you cast an eye over this report for me?
clap/lay/set eyes on sb/sth
to see someone or something for the first time
Everyone keeps talking about Patrick, but I’ve never clapped eyes on the man.
meet the eye
be more complicated
keep your /an eye on sth/sb
to watch or look after something or someone
Will you keep your eye on my suitcase while I go to get the tickets?
cover-up /ˈkʌv.ə.rʌp/ /-ɚ.ʌp/ noun [ C ]
an attempt to prevent the public discovering information about a serious crime or mistake
Allegations of a cover-up of the effects of industrial pollution have been strongly denied by the Environment Minister.
antiquity /ænˈtɪk.wɪ.ti/ /-wə.ti̬/ noun
[ U ] the distant past (= a long time ago), especially before the sixth century
Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes since antiquity.
Before creating this sculpture, she studied all the masterpieces of classical antiquity.
inferior /ɪnˈfɪə.ri.ə r / /-ˈfɪr.i.ɚ/ adjective
- not good, or not as good as someone or something else
These products are inferior to those we bought last year.
She cited cases in which women had received inferior health care.
It was clear the group were regarded as intellectually/morally/socially inferior.
- SPECIALIZED lower, or of lower rank
an inferior officer
retreat /rɪˈtriːt/ noun POSITION
[ C ] a private and safe place
a country/mountain/lakeside retreat
dweller /ˈdwel.ə r / /-ɚ/ noun
city/town/cave, etc. dweller
a person who lives in a city, town, cave, etc.
influx /ˈɪn.flʌks/ noun [ U ]
the arrival of a large number of people or things at the same time
Turkey is expecting an influx of several thousand refugees over the next few days.
adjacent /əˈdʒeɪ.s ə nt/ adjective FORMAL
very near, next to, or touching
They work in adjacent buildings.
They lived in a house adjacent to the railway.
stagecoach /ˈsteɪdʒ.kəʊtʃ/ /-koʊtʃ/ noun [ C ]
(in the past) a covered vehicle pulled by horses that carried passengers and goods on regular routes
sprawl /sprɔːl/ /sprɑːl/ noun DISAPPROVING CITY
- [ C usually singular ] a large area of land covered with buildings which have been added at different times so that it looks untidy
the urban sprawl of South Florida
unsustainable /ˌʌn.səˈsteɪ.nə.b ə l/ adjective
- Something that is unsustainable cannot continue at the same rate
The level of spending on pensions is unsustainable.
- causing damage to the environment by using more of something than can be replaced naturally
unsustainable fishing methods
insurmountable /ˌɪn.səˈmaʊn.tə.bl ̩/ /-sɚˈmaʊn.t̬ə-/ adjective FORMAL
(especially of a problem or a difficulty) so great that it cannot be dealt with successfully
This small country is faced with an insurmountable debt.
void /vɔɪd/ noun
- [ C usually singular ] a large hole or empty space
Before Einstein, space was regarded as a formless void.
- [ S ] a feeling of unhappiness because someone or something is missing
They tried to describe their attempts to fill the void left by their son’s death.
mortgage /ˈmɔː.gɪdʒ/ /ˈmɔːr-/ noun [ C ]
an agreement which allows you to borrow money from a bank or similar organization, especially in order to buy a house or apartment, or the amount of money itself
They took out a £40 000 mortgage (= They borrowed £40 000) to buy the house.
a monthly mortgage payment
segregate /ˈseg.rɪ.geɪt/ verb [ T ]
- to keep one group of people apart from another and treat them differently, especially because of race or sex
a segregated school/society
Blacks were segregated from whites in every area of life.
- to keep one thing separate from another
The systems will have to be able to segregate clients’ money from the firm’s own cash.
contrive /kənˈtraɪv/ verb [ T ]
- to arrange a situation or event, or arrange for something to happen, using clever planning
Couldn’t you contrive a meeting between them? I think they’d be ideally suited.
[ + to infinitive ] Somehow she contrived to get tickets for the concert.
- to invent and/or make a device or other object in a clever and possibly unusual way
Do you think you could contrive something for hanging my clothes on until I can get a wardrobe?
conspicuous /kənˈspɪk.ju.əs/ adjective
very noticeable or attracting attention, often in a way that is not wanted
In China, her blonde hair was conspicuous.
He tried not to look conspicuous and moved slowly along the back of the room.
suburbia /səˈbɜː.bi.ə/ /-ˈbɝː-/ noun [ U ] MAINLY DISAPPROVING
- the outer parts of a town, where there are houses, but no large shops, places of work or places of entertainment
They live in a two-bedroomed house in the heart of suburbia.
- the way of life of people who live in the outer parts of a town
He has written a book about middle-class suburbia.
visionary /ˈvɪʒ. ə n.ri/ /-er.i/ noun [ C ] VIEW OF THE FUTURE
- a person who has the ability to imagine how a country, society, industry, etc. will develop in the future and to plan in a suitable way
glow /gləʊ/ /gloʊ/ noun [ S ] LIGHT
- when something produces a continuous light and/or heat
the glow of the fire
Neon emits a characteristic red glow.
prepossessing /ˌpriː.pəˈzes.ɪŋ/ adjective
interesting, noticeable or attractive
He wasn’t a very prepossessing sort of person.
The box didn’t look very prepossessing, but the necklace inside was beautiful.
blueprint /ˈbluː.prɪnt/ noun [ C ]
- a photographic copy of an early plan for a building or machine
- an early plan or design which explains how something might be achieved
their blueprint for economic reform
convalescent /ˌkɒn.vəˈles. ə nt/ /ˌkɑːn-/ noun [ C ]
someone who is getting better after a serious illness or injury
Most convalescents prefer to be cared for at home rather than in a hospital.
lineage /ˈlɪn.i.ɪdʒ/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL
the members of a person’s family who are directly related to that person and who lived a long time before him or her
She’s very proud of her ancient royal lineage.
disperse /dɪˈspɜːs/ /-spɝːs/ verb [ I or T ]
to spread across or move away over a large area, or to make something do this
When the rain came down the crowds started to disperse.
Police dispersed the crowd that had gathered.
herd /hɜːd/ /hɝːd/ noun [ C + sing/pl verb ]
- a large group of animals of the same type that live and feed together
a herd of cattle/elephants/goats
trail /treɪl/ noun
[ S ] various pieces of information which together show where someone you are searching for has gone
The police admit that the thieves have left no trail for them to follow up.
a heap (=large pile of animal waste, or waste material thrown by human beings in the past
It was customary for dung and bedding to be rotted for up to a year in a midden before spreading on the land.
millennium /mɪˈlen.i.əm/ noun [ C ] plural millennia or millenniums
a period of 1000 years, or the time when a period of 1000 years ends
The corpse had lain preserved in the soil for almost two millennia.
cradle /ˈkreɪ.dl/ ̩ noun [ C ] BED
- a small bed for a baby, especially one that swings from side to side
The nurse rocked the cradle.
dawn /dɔːn/ /dɑːn/ noun [ C or U ]
- the period in the day when light from the sun begins to appear in the sky
We woke at dawn.
We left as dawn was breaking (= starting).
We left at the break of dawn.
Twenty-three people were arrested and large quantities of heroin were seized in a dawn raid (= when police officers suddenly enter a building, in an attempt to catch people involved in illegal activities).
- the dawn of sth
LITERARY the start of a period of time or the beginning of something new
The fall of the Berlin Wall marked the dawn of a new era in European history.
- from dawn to dusk
from early morning until night
We worked from dawn to dusk, seven days a week.
surplus /ˈsɜː.pləs/ /ˈsɝː-/ noun [ C or U ], adjective
- (an amount which is) more than is needed
The world is now producing large food surpluses.
The government has authorized the army to sell its surplus weapons.
UK The store is selling off stock that is surplus to requirements (= more than they need to have).
- the amount of money you have left when you sell more than you buy, or spend less than you have
a budget/trade surplus
Fortunately the school’s bank account is currently in surplus.
seafaring /ˈsiːˌfeə.rɪŋ/ /-ˌfer.ɪŋ/ adjective [ before noun ] LITERARY
connected with travelling by sea
a seafaring man (= a sailor)
1. IELTS Reading
Test your understanding of this English lesson
2. If the first half of the sentence contains a negative verb form, you must use neither or nor. Form sentences using the information in brackets.
EXAMPLE: The Pisa flight wasn’t full. (Rome)
The Pisa flight wasn’t full and neither was the Rome one.
The Pisa flight wasn’t full, nor was the Rome one.
- 1. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 1|1. Information overload
- 2. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 1|2. The mind. Vocabulary practice
- 3. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 2|1. Human nature: character, psychology
- 4. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 2|2. Only a game
- 5. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 2|3. Planning an essay
- 6. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 3|1. Brands
- 7. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 3|2. Time for a change. Business and marketing
- 8. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 4|1. Spotlight on communication
- 9. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 4|2. Fame and the media. Media bias
- 10. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 5|1. Is plastic fantastic?
- 11. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 5|2. Energy. Natural resources
- 12. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 6|1. IELTS Speaking and Listening tips
- 13. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 6|2. Striving to achieve: study, work
- 14. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 7|1. Music matters
- 15. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 7|2. The arts. Writing practice
- 16. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 8|1. Worlds to explore
- 17. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 8|2. Science and discoveries
- 18. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 9|1. Culinary tools
- 19. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 9|2. Modals in conditional sentences. Revision
- 20. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 10|1. Old and new
- 21. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 10|2. The Garden City
- 22. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 11|1. In your dreams
- 23. IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 11|2. The selling of the Senoi