IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 3|2. Time for a change. Business and marketing



1. Answer these questions.

  1. Has your attitude to your free time changed since you were a child? (In what way?)
  2. What value is there in teaching history co children?
  3. What is the best way to learn about history?
  4. Do you think older people are more interested in the past than children are? (Why? / Why not?)
  5. What influence do you think the past has over the present?

2. Listen to two people answering the questions in 1:

  • Has your attitude to your free rime changed since you were a child? (In what way?)
  • What value is there in teaching history co children?
  • What is the best way to learn about history?
  • Do you think older people are more interested in the past than children are? (Why? / Why not?)
  • What influence do you think the past has over the present?

Which question are they answering?

radio programme teenagers

Speaker 1: I think when you’re really young, your spare time seems to last an eternity — it just drags on and on. I remember the summer holidays went on for ages and I had so much time on my hands. Then, in next to no time, you’re an adult and time seems to speed up. It just goes so fast and there aren’t enough hours in the day to get everything done. You feel constantly pressed for time, and spare time becomes this luxury you can’t afford anymore!

Speaker 2: There’s a saying that ’the past is another country’. I think that’s very true for old people like my gran. For her. the past is a country she likes to visit for hours and hours at a time through her memories. She’s always telling me that time passes in the blink of an eye and I should make the most of every moment of it. But for young people, the past seems like only an instant ago and they don’t want to reflect on it. They just want to go out and have the time of their life! I chink chat, when you get near the end of it. your life must seem brief and fleeting. Looking back on it helps you feel you’ve achieved something, helps you feel proud of what you’ve done.

3. Listen to a talk about archaeology and complete the summary using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Over the past few years we’ve been involved in conducting research on an area of the USA known as Lake Coeur D’Alene. Now. long ago. our ancestors came to these shores from Europe. They were the pioneers of the colonial era and felt they had discovered the charms of this lake.

But in fact, if we go back many thousands of years, we find that ancient civilisations dwelt along the shores of the lake, fishing in its blue depths and digging for potatoes near the shore. And I’ve been working with a group of archaeologists gathering evidence of those prehistoric lakeside dwellers.

In some areas, we’ve found remnants of ancient villages buried beneath deep layers of sediment Other areas have yielded only small flecks of charcoal from prehistoric fires.

However, our discoveries mean that the sites will now receive greater formal protection. For example, we’ve just learned that the area will be placed on the National Register of Historic Places. This is wonderful news. It s vital that we conserve these sites because several of them are on the verge of destruction. They’re under attack not only from erosion bur also from looters. These thieves steal what they see as antiques in order to sell them. Without protection, this practice will sadly continue. To help with our research, we aim to fully excavate the sites. And we really need to do that as a matter of some urgency. When we do, we will remove any artefacts we manage to uncover and put them into safe storage.

4. Now listen again and note the words and phrases with a similar meaning to the words in italics in the summary.

5. Do the words in the box refer to the past or the present?

retrospect preceding
contemporary current
bygone topical
immediate status quo

6. COLLOCATION. Complete the sentences with the words in the box in 5:

retrospect preceding
contemporary current
bygone topical
immediate status quo

Use a dictionary to help you and to check collocations with the words in bold. There may be more than one possible answer.


Vocabulary note

Change is often used in the active form when it has a passive sense, e.g. My home town has changed recently.

NOT has been changed

Try to use a range of adjectives and adverbs to intensify or weaken die word change, e.g. There was a profound change in attitudes. Or Attitudes changed completely. NOT Attitudes had a big change.

1. The word change can collocate with all of the adjectives in the box. Do the adjectives mean large or small (change)?

enormous minute total dramatic modest
complete immense gradual profound extraordinary
sweeping minor tremendous  infinitesimal moderate
drastic slight major huge

2. The adjectives in the box can describe the nature or speed of change. Highlight or underline the synonyms of change in the sentences below. Then complete the sentences with adjectives from the box.

smooth gradual turbulent abrupt
sudden rapid temporary

3. Complete the description below with the words in the box.

Error warning!

Be careful with the prepositions you use after the word change: There has been a change in our plans. NOT a change on. We’ve made some changes to the design. NOT made some changes with.

periodic period temporarily remained and
steady steadily by from trend

4. Look at the graph and find the following.

a gradual increase a steady rise a slight fall
a marked difference a temporary levelling out  a very slight rise


5. Answer the questions. Try to use some of the new language from this unit in your answers.

  • Has your city or town changed over the past 20 years? (If so, in what way?)
  • What changes do you think we will see in the next 20 years?
  • Do you think our lives are changing too quickly?
  • How difficult is it for older people to adapt to new changes?
  • What changes would you like to see in the future?
  • How different is life today compared to when your grandparents were young?


1. Choose the answer that best fits each space.

2. Match a person or group of people (1-10) with the correct definition (a-j).

3. Complete the phrasal verbs in italics with the correct preposition. Then match each phrasal verb with a synonym from the box.

established postponed planned became a trend
resolved chose anticipated rejected
collapsed received hired prepared

4. Choose the correct meaning for the words or phrases in italics.


catch on phrasal verb TO BECOME POPULAR 

  1. to become fashionable or popular

I wonder if the game will ever catch on with young people?

draw sth up phrasal verb [ M ] PREPARE
1. to prepare something, usually something official, in writing
I’ve drawn up a list of candidates that I’d like to interview.
come in for sth phrasal verb
to receive blame or criticism
The director has come in for a lot of criticism over his handling of the affair.
go for sth phrasal verb CHOOSE
1. to choose something
Instead of butter, I always go for margarine or a low-fat spread.
take sb on phrasal verb [ M ] EMPLOY
1. to employ someone
She was taken on as a laboratory assistant.
turn sth/sb down phrasal verb [ M ]
to refuse an offer or request
He offered her a trip to Australia but she turned it/him down.
He turned down the job because it involved too much travelling.

retail /ˈriː.teɪl/ verb [ T ]
1. to sell goods to the public in shops or by post
The company makes and retails moderately priced sportswear.
in bulk
in large amounts
The office buys paper in bulk to keep down costs.
produce /ˈprɒd.juːs/ /ˈprɑː.djuːs/ noun [ U ]
food or any other substance or material that is grown or obtained through farming,
especially that which is produced in large amounts
agricultural/dairy/fresh produce
produce /prəˈdjuːs/ /-ˈduːs/ verb [ T ] MAKE
1. to make something or bring something into existence
France produces a great deal of wine for export.
Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow.
She works for a company that produces (= makes for sale) electrical goods.
upmarket /ˌʌpˈmɑː.kɪt/ /ˈʌp.mɑːr-/ adjective , adverb ( MAINLY US upscale )
describes goods and products that are of very high quality and intended to be
bought by people who are quite rich
an upmarket brand name

downmarket /ˌdaʊnˈmɑː.kɪt/ /ˈdaʊnˌmɑːr-/ adjective ( US downscale )
cheap in quality and price
a downmarket tabloid newspaper
renowned /rɪˈnaʊnd/ adjective
famous for something
The region is renowned for its outstanding natural beauty.
Marco Polo is a renowned explorer/is renowned as an explorer.
on the back of sth
soon after an earlier success, and as a result of it
The advertising agency secured the contract on the back of their previous successful
obscurity /əbˈskjʊə.rɪ.ti/ /-ˈskjʊr.ə.t̬i/ noun [ U ] NOT KNOWN
1. when someone or something is not known to many people
He was briefly famous in his twenties but then sank into obscurity.
He rose from relative obscurity to worldwide recognition.
adulation /ˌæd.jʊˈleɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ U ]
very great admiration or praise for someone, especially when it is more than is
Minelli is a born performer — she loves the excitement and she loves the adulation.

exploit /ɪkˈsplɔɪt/ verb [ T ] USE WELL
1. to use something for advantage
We need to make sure that we exploit our resources as fully as possible.
lore /lɔː r / /lɔːr/ noun [ U ]
traditional knowledge and stories about a subject
According to local lore, the water has healing properties.
swamp /swɒmp/ /swɑːmp/ verb COVER
1. [ T ] to cover a place or thing with a large amount of water
High tides have swamped the coast.
The boat was swamped by an enormous wave.
detachment /dɪˈtætʃ.mənt/ noun NO EMOTION
2. [ U ] a feeling of not being emotionally involved
to have an air of detachment
cleft /kleft/ noun [ C ]
an opening or crack , especially in a rock or the ground
Eagles often nest in a cleft in the rocks.
toss /tɒs/ /tɑːs/ verb THROW
1. [ T usually + adverb or preposition ] to throw something carelessly
He glanced at the letter and then tossed it into the bin.
The bull tossed him up into the air.

boost /buːst/ verb [ T ]
to improve or increase something
The theatre managed to boost its audiences by cutting ticket prices.
Share prices were boosted by reports of the President’s recovery.
I tried to boost his ego (= make him feel more confident) by praising his cooking.
credibility /ˌkred.əˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/ /-ə.ti̬/ noun [ U ]
when someone can be believed or trusted
His arrest for lewd behaviour seriously damaged his credibility as a religious leader.
He complained that we had tried to undermine his credibility within the company.
airtime /ˈeə.taɪm/ /ˈer-/ noun [ U ]
(the amount of) broadcasting time that someone or something has on television or
The smaller political parties are campaigning to be allowed free airtime before
general elections.
ample /ˈæ / ̩ adjective ENOUGH
1. more than enough
You’ll have ample opportunity to ask questions after the talk.
There’s ample evidence that the lawyer knew exactly what she was doing.
surge /sɜːdʒ/ /sɝːdʒ/ noun [ C ]
1. a sudden and great increase
An unexpected surge in electrical power caused the computer to crash.
There has been a surge in house prices recently.
scout /skaʊt/ verb [ I or T usually + adv/prep ]
to go to look in various places for something you want
He’s scouting about/around for somewhere better to live.
She’s opened an office in Connecticut to scout out (= discover information about) the
east coast housing market.
eternity /ɪˈtɜː.nɪ.ti/ /-ˈtɝː.nə.ti̬/ noun
1. [ U ] time which never ends or which has no limits
They haven’t been given these rights for (all) eternity — they should justify having them
just like most other people have to.
drag /dræg/ verb -gg- BORING
7. [ I ] If something such as a film or performance drags, it seems to go slowly because
it is boring
The first half of the film was interesting but the second half dragged (on) .
retrospect /ˈret.rə ʊ .spekt/ /-rə-/ noun
in retrospect
thinking now about something in the past
In retrospect, I think my marriage was doomed from the beginning.
I’m sure my university days seem happier in retrospect than they really were.
contemporary /kənˈtem.p ə r. ə r.i/ /-pə.rer-/ adjective EXISTING NOW
1. existing or happening now
contemporary music/literature/art/fashion
Although it was written hundreds of years ago, it still has a contemporary (= modern)
feel to it.
bygone /ˈbaɪ.gɒn/ /-gɑːn/ adjective [ before noun ]
belonging to or happening in a past time
a bygone era
topical /ˈtɒp.ɪ.k ə l/ /ˈtɑː.pɪ-/ adjective HAPPENING NOW
1. of interest at the present time; relating to things which are happening at present
a topical joke
The discussion focused on topical issues in medicine.
the status quo /ðəˌsteɪ.təsˈkwəʊ/ /-əsˈkwoʊ/ noun [ S ]
the present situation
Certain people always want to maintain the status quo.
preceding /prɪˈsiː.dɪŋ/ /priː-/ adjective [ before noun ]
existing or happening before someone or something
The paintings are a development of ideas she explored in the preceding decade.
In conclusion, I hope the preceding arguments have convinced you of the need for action.
dwell /dwel/ verb [ I usually + adv/prep ] dwelt or dwelled , dwelt or dwelled
to live in a place or in a particular way
She dwelt in remote parts of Asia for many years.
sediment /ˈsed.ɪ.mənt/ noun
1. [ C or U ] a soft substance that is like a wet powder and consists of very small
pieces of a solid material which have fallen to the bottom of a liquid
There was a brown sediment in the bottom of the bottle.
looting /ˈluː.tɪŋ/ /-tɪ̬ŋ/ noun [ U ]
the activity of stealing from shops during a violent event
There were reports of widespread looting as football hooligans stampeded through the city centre
minute /maɪˈnjuːt/ /-ˈnuːt/ adjective
extremely small
a minute amount/quantity
I’ve never seen a man with such tiny hands — they’re minute!
The documentary showed an eye operation in minute detail (= showing every small
detail) .
sweeping /ˈswiː.pɪŋ/ adjective [ before noun ] WIN
3. A sweeping win or victory is an easy or complete win
The party have failed to win the sweeping victory they expected.
minor /ˈmaɪ.nə r / /-nɚ/ adjective UNIMPORTANT
1. having little importance, influence or effect, especially when compared with
other things of the same type
a minor operation
It’s only a minor problem .
There’s been an increase in minor offences , such as traffic violations and petty
infinitesimal /ˌɪn.fɪ.nɪˈtes.ɪ.məl/ adjective FORMAL
extremely small
The amounts of radioactivity present were infinitesimal.
moderate /ˈmɒd. ə r.ət/ /ˈmɑː.dɚ-/ adjective MEDIUM-SIZED
1. neither small nor large but between the two; clearly within the limits of a range of
moderate growth/inflation
He’s a moderate drinker.
drastic /ˈdræs.tɪk/ adjective
(especially of actions) severe and sudden or having very noticeable effects
drastic measures
Many employees have had to take drastic cuts in pay.
level off/out phrasal verb
If an aircraft levels off/out, it starts to travel horizontally rather than going up or
The jet levelled off at 10, 000 feet.

thrive /θraɪv/ verb [ I ] thrived or US ALSO throve , thrived or US ALSO thriven
to grow, develop or be successful
His business thrived in the years before the war.
She seems to thrive on stress.
downtrends – a tendency of a moderate economic recession
lease /liːs/ verb [ T ]
to make a legal agreement by which money is paid in order to use land, a building, a vehicle or a piece of equipment for an agreed period of time.
The estate contains 300 new homes, about a third of which are leased to the council.
[ + two objects ] It was agreed they would lease the flat to him/lease him the flat.
premises /ˈprem.ɪ.sɪz/ plural noun
the land and buildings owned by someone, especially by a company or organization
The company is relocating to new premises.
There is no smoking allowed anywhere on school premises.
The ice cream is made on the premises (= in the building where it is sold) .
overheads UK ( US overhead [ C ] )
the regular and necessary costs, such as rent and heating, that are involved in
operating a business
We need to reduce our overheads.
Many businesses are moving out of New York because the overhead there is so high.
counterpart /ˈkaʊn.tə.pɑːt/ /-tɚ̬ .pɑːrt/ noun [ C ]
a person or thing which has the same purpose as another one in a different place or
The Prime Minister is to meet his European counterparts to discuss the war against
anticipate /ænˈtɪs.ɪ.peɪt/ verb [ T ]
to imagine or expect that something will happen, sometimes taking action in
preparation for it happening
We don’t anticipate any trouble.
We had one or two difficulties along the way that we didn’t anticipate.
Are you anticipating a lot of people at the party tonight?
[ + -ing verb ] They anticipate hav ing several applicants for the job.
benchmark /ˈben t ʃ.mɑːk/ /-mɑːrk/ noun [ C ]
a level of quality which can be used as a standard when comparing other things
Her outstanding performances set a new benchmark for singers throughout the world.
absenteeism /ˌæb.s ə nˈtiː.ɪ.z ə m/ noun [ U ]
The high rate of absenteeism is costing the company a lot of money.
brainchild /ˈbreɪn.tʃaɪld/ noun [ S ]
a clever and original idea, plan or invention
The project was the brainchild of one of the students.

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