IELTS|Intermediate|11. Travelling around

pic3|Business|Pre-Int|L4

Decide if the following sentences are true or false

Table1_IELTS|Int|L11

Read the task below. Underline the key ideas. Decide what tenses you will need

pic1_IELTS|Int|L11


Part 2

Exam information

  • You speak for between one and two minutes on a topic the examiner gives you.
  • You have one minute to think and write some notes before you speak.

Writing

Complete the notes in the next column, which Kyung-Soon made, by writing words from the box in the gaps. Then listen and check your answers


Kyung-Soon Examiner

Kyung-Soon: Well, I’m going to talk about a trip I made across Australia. The transport I used was a motorbike. It wasn’t a new bike, it was — what’s the word — second-hand, and I bought it because I wanted to see Australia. I didn’t want to use public transport because I wanted to be independent. I had a month’s holiday before I started my course and I made the trip with a friend, a Chinese girl, because I was frightened of travelling alone. I met her at a language school where we studied English together. We travelled along the south coast and saw some of the desert. The good thing about the journey was that we met a lot of other people who were travelling. We went to places which are difficult to reach on public transport, and the trip was quite cheap. Also, the motorbike had quite a powerful engine, so it was fast and exciting. The bad things were the rain and the heat because they made us tired. I have great memories of the trip because I felt really free. We could go where we liked. Also, we met some very friendly people and we saw a lot of interesting places. I still have friends who I made during that trip. In all, I think it was the best journey I’ve ever made.
Examiner: Thank you.

 

pic3_Adults|Grammar|El|L8

Decide which of the phrases below Kyung-Soon’s used in her talk for the following purpose

Look at the word and answer the questions. Then listen and check

pic2_IELTS|Int|L11

Word stress 1

In words with more than one syllable, we stress one syllable more than the others.

Motorbike

1. How many syllables does this word have?

2. Which syllable is stressed?


motorbike


🔗CLD

When you look in a dictionary, the main stress in the word will usually be shown with this sign «’». So you will see motorbike also written like this: /’məʋtəbaik/. This shows the main stress and the pronunciation in phonetics.

Decide which syllable is stressed in these words. Write the number of the stressed syllable in the box. Then listen and check


transport
studying
independent
holiday
university
powerful
exciting
expensive
memories
interesting

pic6_T|Grammar act|L10

Look at the speaking task. Make notes, think how you can use discourse markers to introduce your talk, introduce new points and finish the talk

Describe a journey you made in the past that you remember well.

You should say:

  • what forms of transport you used and why;
  • who you travelled with;
  • what was good and bad about it;

and explain why you remember the trip so well.

pic3_IELTS|Int|L11

Roleplay the exam situation. Give a monologue on the following topic

Exam tip

Part 2

  • You speak for between one and two minutes on a topic the examiner gives you.
  • You have one minute to think and write some notes before you speak.

Describe a journey you made in the past that you remember well.

You should say:

  • what forms of transport you used and why;
  • who you travelled with;
  • what was good and bad about it ;

and explain why you remember the trip so well.

Wordlist

  1. engine
  2. coast
  3. desert
  4. in all

Useful language

  • to have great memories of something
  • to make something with
  • The bad/good thing is
  • The good/bad thing about something is
  • The transport somebody used was

IELTS Speaking Assessment Criteria

Below are the marking criteria for IELTS speaking.

Fluency Talking at length

Talking without pauses or hesitations

Talking without self-correction

Able to be understood

Using linking devices

Lexical Resource Using a range of words & paraphrasing

Using collocations

Using less common vocabulary

Avoiding errors

Grammar Range & Accuracy Using a range of sentence structures

Using a range of grammar tenses

Avoiding errors

Pronunciation Able to be understood throughout the test

Able to use Intonation

Accent does not affect understanding

Accurate word and sound pronunciation

🔗How to Prepare for IELTS

pic1_IELTS|Int|L3

Answer the questions and fill in the table and discuss the exam tips which you learnt today

1. Do you think you did well in this task? Why/why not?

2. What strategies and tips did you use?

Exam tip

  • Listen to the examiner’s questions carefully.
  • Look confidently at the examiner and perhaps smile a little when you answer the questions.
  • Answer the questions openly and, when appropriate, answer with extra details, or a reason.
  • Use a range of vocabulary.
  • Be ready to offer extra information about yourself and try to speak fluently and confidently.
What I knew about Speaking part 2 before the lesson What I have learnt about Speaking part 2 What else I would like to know about Speaking part 2

Read the Passage and choose correct heading for each section from the list of headings below

pic4_IELTS|Int|L11

I. MIRTP as a future model

II. Identifying the main transport problems

III. Preference for motorised vehicles

IV. Government authorities’ instructions

V. Initial improvements in mobility and transport modes

VI. Request for improved transport in Makete

VII. Transport improvements in the northern part of the district

VIII. Improvements in the rail network

IX. Effects of initial MIRTP measures

X. Co-operation of district officials

XI. Role of wheelbarrows and donkeys



Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project

Section A

The disappointing results of many conventional road transport projects in Africa led some experts to rethink the strategy by which rural transport problems were to be tackled at the beginning of the 1980s. A request for help in improving the availability of transport within the remote Makete District of southwestern Tanzania presented the opportunity to try a new approach.

The concept of ‘integrated rural transport’ was adopted in the task of examining the transport needs of the rural households in the district. The objective was to reduce the time and effort needed to obtain access to essential goods and services through an improved rural transport system. The underlying assumption was that the time saved would be used instead for activities that would improve the social and economic development of the communities. The Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project (MIRTP) started in 1985 with financial support from the Swiss Development Corporation and was co-ordinated with the help of the Tanzanian government.

Section B

When the project began, Makete District was virtually totally isolated during the rainy season. The regional road was in such bad shape that access to the main towns was impossible for about three months of the year. Road traffic was extremely rare within the district, and alternative means of transport were restricted to donkeys in the north of the district. People relied primarily on the paths, which were slippery and dangerous during the rains.

Before solutions could be proposed, the problems had to be understood. Little was known about the transport demands of the rural households, so Phase I, between December 1985 and December 1987, focused on research. The socio-economic survey of more than 400 households in the district indicated that a household in Makete spent, on average, seven hours a day on transporting themselves and their goods, a figure which seemed extreme but which has also been obtained in surveys in other rural areas in Africa. Interesting facts regarding transport were found: 95% was on foot; 80% was within the locality; and 70% was related to the collection of water and firewood and travelling to grinding mills.

Section C

Having determined the main transport needs, possible solutions were identified which might reduce the time and burden. During Phase II, from January to February 1991, a number of approaches were implemented in an effort to improve mobility and access to transport.

An improvement of the road network was considered necessary to ensure the import and export of goods to the district. These improvements were carried out using methods that were heavily dependent on labour. In addition to the improvement of roads, these methods provided training in the operation of a mechanical workshop and bus and truck services. However the difference from the conventional approach was that this time consideration was given to local transport needs outside the road network.

Most goods were transported along the paths that provide short-cuts up and down the hillsides, but the paths were a real safety risk and made the journey on foot even more arduous. It made sense to improve the paths by building steps, handrails and footbridges.

It was uncommon to find means of transport that were more efficient than walking but less technologically advanced than motor vehicles. The use of bicycles was constrained by their high cost and the lack of available spare parts. Oxen were not used at all but donkeys were used by a few households in the northern part of the district. MIRTP focused on what would be most appropriate for the inhabitants of Makete in terms of what was available, how much they could afford and what they were willing to accept.

After careful consideration, the project chose the promotion of donkeys − a donkey costs less than a bicycle − and the introduction of a locally manufacturable wheelbarrow.

Section D

At the end of Phase II, it was clear that the selected approaches to Makete’s transport problems had had different degrees of success. Phase III, from March 1991 to March 1993, focused on the refinement and institutionalisation of these activities.

The road improvements and accompanying maintenance system had helped make the district centre accessible throughout the year. Essential goods from outside the district had become more readily available at the market, and prices did not fluctuate as much as they had done before.

Paths and secondary roads were improved only at the request of communities who were willing to participate in construction and maintenance. However the improved paths impressed the inhabitants, and requests for assistance greatly increased soon after only a few improvements had been completed.

The efforts to improve the efficiency of the existing transport services were not very successful because most of the motorised vehicles in the district broke down and there were no resources to repair them. Even the introduction of low-cost means of transport was difficult because of the general poverty of the district.The locally manufactured wheelbarrows were still too expensive for all but a few of the households. Modifications to the original design by local carpenters cut production time and costs. Other local carpenters have been trained in the new design so that they can respond to requests. Nevertheless, a locally produced wooden wheelbarrow which costs around 5000 Tanzanian shillings (less than US $20) in Makete, and is about one quarter the cost of a metal wheelbarrow, is still too expensive for most people.

Donkeys, which were imported to the district, have become more common and contribute, in particular, to the transportation of crops and goods to market. Those who have bought donkeys are mainly from richer households but, with an increased supply through local breeding, donkeys should become more affordable. Meanwhile, local initiatives are promoting the renting out of the existing donkeys.

It should be noted, however, that a donkey, which at 20,000 Tanzanian shillings costs less than a bicycle, is still an investment equal to an average household’s income over half a year. This clearly illustrates the need for supplementary measures if one wants to assist the rural poor.

Section E

It would have been easy to criticise the MIRTP for using in the early phases a ‘top-down’ approach, in which decisions were made by experts and officials before being handed down to communities, but it was necessary to start the process from the level of the governmental authorities of the district. It would have been difficult to respond to the requests of villagers and other rural inhabitants without the support and understanding of district authorities.

Section F

Today, nobody in the district argues about the importance of improved paths and inexpensive means of transport. But this is the result of dedicated work over a long period, particularly from the officers in charge of community development. They played an essential role in raising awareness and interest among the rural communities.

The concept of integrated rural transport is now well established in Tanzania, where a major program of rural transport is just about to start.The experiences from Makete will help in this initiative, and Makete District will act as a reference for future work.


Decide if the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in the Reading passage

Yes — if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

No — if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

Not given — if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

Read the text one more time and decide which of the following phrases best describes the main aim of the Reading passage

pic5_IELTS|Int|L11

Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project

Section A

The disappointing results of many conventional road transport projects in Africa led some experts to rethink the strategy by which rural transport problems were to be tackled at the beginning of the 1980s. A request for help in improving the availability of transport within the remote Makete District of southwestern Tanzania presented the opportunity to try a new approach.

The concept of ‘integrated rural transport’ was adopted in the task of examining the transport needs of the rural households in the district. The objective was to reduce the time and effort needed to obtain access to essential goods and services through an improved rural transport system. The underlying assumption was that the time saved would be used instead for activities that would improve the social and economic development of the communities. The Makete Integrated Rural Transport Project (MIRTP) started in 1985 with financial support from the Swiss Development Corporation and was co-ordinated with the help of the Tanzanian government.

Section B

When the project began, Makete District was virtually totally isolated during the rainy season. The regional road was in such bad shape that access to the main towns was impossible for about three months of the year. Road traffic was extremely rare within the district, and alternative means of transport were restricted to donkeys in the north of the district. People relied primarily on the paths, which were slippery and dangerous during the rains.

Before solutions could be proposed, the problems had to be understood. Little was known about the transport demands of the rural households, so Phase I, between December 1985 and December 1987, focused on research. The socio-economic survey of more than 400 households in the district indicated that a household in Makete spent, on average, seven hours a day on transporting themselves and their goods, a figure which seemed extreme but which has also been obtained in surveys in other rural areas in Africa. Interesting facts regarding transport were found: 95% was on foot; 80% was within the locality; and 70% was related to the collection of water and firewood and travelling to grinding mills.

Section C

Having determined the main transport needs, possible solutions were identified which might reduce the time and burden. During Phase II, from January to February 1991, a number of approaches were implemented in an effort to improve mobility and access to transport.

An improvement of the road network was considered necessary to ensure the import and export of goods to the district. These improvements were carried out using methods that were heavily dependent on labour In addition to the improvement of roads, these methods provided training in the operation of a mechanical workshop and bus and truck services. However the difference from the conventional approach was that this time consideration was given to local transport needs outside the road network.

Most goods were transported along the paths that provide short-cuts up and down the hillsides, but the paths were a real safety risk and made the journey on foot even more arduous. It made sense to improve the paths by building steps, handrails and footbridges.

It was uncommon to find means of transport that were more efficient than walking but less technologically advanced than motor vehicles. The use of bicycles was constrained by their high cost and the lack of available spare parts. Oxen were not used at all but donkeys were used by a few households in the northern part of the district. MIRTP focused on what would be most appropriate for the inhabitants of Makete in terms of what was available, how much they could afford and what they were willing to accept.

After careful consideration, the project chose the promotion of donkeys − a donkey costs less than a bicycle − and the introduction of a locally manufacturable wheelbarrow.

Section D

At the end of Phase II, it was clear that the selected approaches to Makete’s transport problems had had different degrees of success. Phase III, from March 1991 to March 1993, focused on the refinement and institutionalisation of these activities.

The road improvements and accompanying maintenance system had helped make the district centre accessible throughout the year. Essential goods from outside the district had become more readily available at the market, and prices did not fluctuate as much as they had done before.

Paths and secondary roads were improved only at the request of communities who were willing to participate in construction and maintenance. However the improved paths impressed the inhabitants, and requests for assistance greatly increased soon after only a few improvements had been completed.

The efforts to improve the efficiency of the existing transport services were not very successful because most of the motorised vehicles in the district broke down and there were no resources to repair them. Even the introduction of low-cost means of transport was difficult because of the general poverty of the district. The locally manufactured wheelbarrows were still too expensive for all but a few of the households. Modifications to the original design by local carpenters cut production time and costs. Other local carpenters have been trained in the new design so that they can respond to requests. Nevertheless, a locally produced wooden wheelbarrow which costs around 5000 Tanzanian shillings (less than US $20) in Makete, and is about one quarter the cost of a metal wheelbarrow, is still too expensive for most people.

Donkeys, which were imported to the district, have become more common and contribute, in particular, to the transportation of crops and goods to market. Those who have bought donkeys are mainly from richer households but, with an increased supply through local breeding, donkeys should become more affordable. Meanwhile, local initiatives are promoting the renting out of the existing donkeys.

It should be noted, however, that a donkey, which at 20,000 Tanzanian shillings costs less than a bicycle, is still an investment equal to an average household’s income over half a year. This clearly illustrates the need for supplementary measures if one wants to assist the rural poor.

Section E

It would have been easy to criticise the MIRTP for using in the early phases a ‘top-down’ approach, in which decisions were made by experts and officials before being handed down to communities, but it was necessary to start the process from the level of the governmental authorities of the district. It would have been difficult to respond to the requests of villagers and other rural inhabitants without the support and understanding of district authorities.

Section F

Today, nobody in the district argues about the importance of improved paths and inexpensive means of transport. But this is the result of dedicated work over a long period, particularly from the officers in charge of community development. They played an essential role in raising awareness and interest among the rural communities.

The concept of integrated rural transport is now well established in Tanzania, where a major program of rural transport is just about to start. The experiences from Makete will help in this initiative, and Makete District will act as a reference for future work.


Choose the correct ending A-J for each sentence 10-13

A. provided the people of Makete with experience in running bus and truck services.

B. was especially successful in the northern part of the district.

C. differed from earlier phases in that the community became less actively involved.

D. improved paths used for transport up and down hillsides.

E. was no longer a problem once the roads had been improved.

F. cost less than locally made wheelbarrows.

G. was done only at the request of local people who were willing to lend a hand.

H. was at first considered by MIRTP to be affordable for the people of the district.

I. hindered attempts to make the existing transport services more efficient.

J. was thought to be the most important objective of Phase III.

pic6_IELTS|Int|L11

Listen to the audio and complete the notes

— Excuse me.

— Yes?

— I wonder if you could spare a few minutes to do a survey on transport.

— It won’t take long.

— No, that’s fine.

— Lovely. The survey is on behalf of the local council. They’d like to know about what transport you use and any suggestions for improvement.

— Can I start by asking you how you travelled to town today?

— Sure. I came on the bus.

— Great. Now can I get a few details about yourself?

— OK.

— What’s your name?

— It’s Luisa ….

— Yes.

— Hardie.

— Can you spell that, please?

— Yes, it’s H-A-R-D-l-E.

— Great. Thanks. And can I have your address?

— It’s 19, White Stone Road.

— Oh, right’. I know that area. It’s Bradfield, isn’t it?

— That’s right.

— Is the postcode GT7?

— It’s actually G-T-8. 2-L-C.

— Great. And could I ask what your job is? Are you a student?

— I’ve actually just finished my training. I’m a hairdresser.

— Oh, right. And one more question in this section. What is the reason for you coming into town today?

— Actually it’s not for shopping today, which would be my normal reason, but to see the dentist.

— Right. Thanks.

— Now in this last section I’d like you to give us some ideas about the facilities and arrangements in the city for getting to and from work, er, any suggestions you have for improvements.

— Well, something I’ve thought about for some time is that when I do walk and I’m doing a later shift, I think the lighting should be better.

— Yes, good point.

— And of course, I think it’s a real shame they’ve been cutting down on the number of footpaths. They should have more of those. Then people would walk more.

— Yes, right.

— And, I don’t think there are enough trains. That’s why I don’t use them — you have to wait so long.

— Thanks. And finally I’d like to ask your opinion on cycling. As you may know, there’s a drive in the city to get more people to cycle to work.

— Right.

— But we realise that there are things which the council, but also employers, might do to help encourage workers to cycle to work.

— Yep. Well, I have thought about it and where I work there are no safe places to leave your bikes.

— OK.

— And also, I’d have to cycle uphill and on a hot day I’d arrive at work pretty sweaty so I think I’d need a shower somewhere at work.

— Right.

— And I suppose the last thing is that I wouldn’t be all that confident about cycling on such busy roads. I think I’d like to see you offering training for that, you know, I’d feel a lot better about starting if that was the case.

— Well, that’s very helpful. Thank you very much for your time.

— No problem. Bye.


Look at the chart and study the instructions

The graph below shows the different modes of transport used to travel to and from work in one European city in 1960, 1980 and 2000.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below.

You should write at least 150 words.

pic7_IELTS|Int|L11

IELTS Writing Part 1

Write a description of the charts.

You should:

  • write at least 150 words;
  • spend not more than 20 minutes on this task.

Exam advice

Chart summary

  • Study the chart(s) carefully and look for the most important features.
  • Write an introductory sentence which says what the chart(s) show(s).
  • Make sure the facts you write are correct.

To refresh the strategy of dealing with the task follow the 🔗link

Write a report describing the information provided in the chart. Make use of the suggested words and phrases

Wordlist

1. compare
2. compared to
3. as opposed to
4. in all
5. versus
6. more than
7. in general
8. generally speaking


Useful language

  • to make something with
  • The bad/good thing is
  • The good/bad thing about something is
  • The transport somebody used was
  • The majority of
  • greater than
  • less than
  • Let’s turn to this diagram
  • The number … increases/goes up/grows by …
  • The number … decreases/goes down/sinks by …
  • The number … does not change/remains stable
  • So we can say
  • As can be seen

  • Warm-up
  • Task card
  • Notes
  • Useful words
  • Word stress
  • Speaking and making notes
  • Speaking
  • Giving feedback
  • Rural transport
  • How to improve it?
  • Transport survey
  • Describing a Chart
  • Rural transport
  • How to improve it?
  • Transport survey
  • Describing a Chart
  1. 1. IELTS|Intermediate|1. Dream city
  2. 2. IELTS|Intermediate|2. Booking an apartment
  3. 3. IELTS|Intermediate|3. Talking about your hometown
  4. 4. IELTS|Intermediate|4. Where to go?
  5. 5. IELTS|Intermediate|Revise and Check 1
  6. 6. IELTS|Intermediate|5. Explorer and writer
  7. 7. IELTS|Intermediate|6. Travelling companions
  8. 8. IELTS|Intermediate|7. Family and childhood
  9. 9. IELTS|Intermediate|8. Families around the world
  10. 10. IELTS|Intermediate|Revise and Check 2
  11. 11. IELTS|Intermediate|9. Machines in our life
  12. 12. IELTS|Intermediate|10. On board
  13. 13. IELTS|Intermediate|11. Travelling around
  14. 14. IELTS|Intermediate|12. Different ways
  15. 15. IELTS|Intermediate|Revise and Check 3
  16. 16. IELTS|Intermediate| 13. Old innovation
  17. 17. IELTS|Intermediate|14. At an exhibition
  18. 18. IELTS|Intermediate|15. Electronic devices
  19. 19. IELTS|Intermediate|16. Inventions
  20. 20. IELTS|Intermediate|Revise and Check 4
  21. 21. IELTS|Intermediate|17. Wild animals
  22. 22. IELTS|Intermediate|18. In the zoo
  23. 23. IELTS|Intermediate|19. Animals in our life
  24. 24. IELTS|Intermediate|20. Animal life
  25. 25. IELTS|Intermediate|Revise and Check 5
  26. 26. IELTS|Intermediate|21. It makes difference
  27. 27. IELTS|Intermediate|22. Successful people
  28. 28. IELTS|Intermediate|23. Human memory
  29. 29. IELTS|Intermediate|24. Talent and success
  30. 30. IELTS|Intermediate|Revise and Check 6
  31. 31. IELTS|Intermediate|Exam: reading and speaking
  32. 32. IELTS|Intermediate|Exam: listening and writing