IELTS|Intermediate|21. It makes difference

Try to guess if the following sentences are True or False

  • DNA — (deoxyribonucleic acid) a substance that carries genetic information in the cells of the body
  • to pluck — to take hold of (something) and quickly remove it from its place
  • tangled bundles — a collection of things or quantity of material tied up together
  • chromosomes — a part of every living cell that is shaped like a thread and contains the genes that control the size, shape, etc. that a plant or animal has
  • a scroll — a design shaped like a piece of rolled up paper
  • a genome — all the genes in one cell of a living thing
  • to be bananas (idiom) — to be crazy


Watch the video and discuss the questions

It’s often said that we humans share 50% of our DNA with bananas, 80% with dogs and 99% with chimpanzees. Taken literally, those numbers make it sound like we could pluck one cell from a chimp and one from a human, pull out the tangled bundles of DNA, known as chromosomes, unroll each one like a scroll and read off two nearly identical strings of letters. But in reality, the human and chimp scrolls don’t sync up so easily. In the 6-8 million years since we split from our last common ancestor, chance mutations and natural selection have changed each of our genomes in radical and unique ways. Two human scrolls fused, leaving us with 23 pairs of chromosomes to chimp’s 24. Other large mutations revised huge sections of text, duplicating a chunk of human DNA here, erasing a chunk of chimp DNA there, while throughout the scrolls, tiny mutations swapped one letter for another.

When researchers sat down to compare the chimp and human genomes, those single-letter differences were easy to tally, but the big mismatch sections weren’t. For example, if a genetic paragraph thousands of letters long appears twice in a human scroll, but only once in its chimp’s counterpart, should that second human copy count as thousands of changes or just one? And what about identical paragraphs that appear in both genomes but in different places or in reverse order? Or broken up into pieces? Rather than monkey around with these difficult questions, the researchers simply excluded all the large mismatched sections, a whopping 1.3 billion letters in all, and performed a letter-by-letter comparison on the remaining 2.4 billion, which turned out to be 98.77% identical.

So … yes, we share 99% of our DNA with chimps if we ignore 18% of their genome and 25% of ours. And there’s another problem. Just as a small tweak in a sentence can alter its meaning entirely (or not at all), a few mutations in DNA sometimes produce big changes in a creature’s looks and behavior, whereas other times lots of mutations make very little difference. So just counting up the number of genetic changes doesn’t really tell us that much about how similar or different two creatures are. But that doesn’t mean we can’t learn anything by comparing their genomes. DNA contains a record of the evolutionary relationships between all organisms. It’s a garbled record, but by reading closely, we’ve been able to glean enough information to refine the evolutionary trees we started drawing long before genome sequencing was around. We may not actually be 99% chimp, but we are 100% great ape. And at least a little bananas.


1. Do you think that we are really 99% chimps? Why (not)?

2. What other animals do we have common features with?

🔗Humans and animals

Look at the picture and complete the people’s thoughts

The people in the pictures are thinking about a change they could make in their lives. Use the words to complete their thoughts.


Discuss the questions

1. What should these people change in their lives?

2. Do you think any of the people will change? Why (not)?

3. Which of the changes mentioned in this exercise would you like to make? Why?

4. What other changes do you feel like making in your life? Why?

5. Why do some people find it difficult to change?

pic1_IELTS|Int|L21

Read the text title and subheading and predict what the writer is going to say about the changes

Making a change

How easy is it for us to change our lives and why?

Read the whole passage quickly

In 1990, a young American named Christopher McCandless gave up his career plans, left behind everyone he knew, including his family, and went off on an adventure. He was 22 at the time. In an act of kindness, he donated all his savings to the famous charity, Oxfam International, and hitchhiked his way through America to Alaska. His decisions were so unusual for his age that Jon Krakauer wrote a book about them called Into the Wild, and Sean Penn directed a film that had the same title.

Of course, this is an unusual story. Most college graduates would not do quite the same thing. However, studies do show that in teenage years, people are more likely to try out new experiences. Instead of following the family career path, for example, and working his way up the same organisation like his grandfather did, a 15-year-old may dream about becoming a traveller — only to find in his early 20s that this fascination with new places is declining and change is less attractive. This age-related trend can be observed in all cultures.

The reason why people all over the world become less keen to change as they get older may be because people’s lives generally follow similar patterns and involve similar demands. Most people, wherever they are, aim to find a job and a partner. As they get older, they may have young children to look after and possibly elderly family members. These responsibilities cannot be achieved without some degree of consistency, which means that new experiences and ideas may not have a place in the person’s life. New experiences may bring excitement but also insecurity, and so most people prefer to stay with the familiar.

However, not every individual is the same. One toddler may want to play a different game every day and get fed up if nothing changes at the nursery. Another may seek out and play with the same children and toys on every visit. Young children who avoid new experiences will grow up to be more conventional than others. Psychologists argue that those who have more open personalities as children are more open than others when they are older.

They also suggest that young men have a greater interest in novelty than women, although, as they age, this desire for new experiences fades more quickly than it does in women.

The truth is that, as we get older, we prefer the things we know. We tend to order the same meals in restaurants, sit on the same side of the train when we commute to work, go on holiday to the same places and construct our day in the same way. If you are older than 20, remember that your openness to new experiences is slowly declining. So, you are better off making a new start today than postponing it until later.

Find these words in the passage, then match them with their definitions

pic2_IELTS|Int|L21


Making a change

How easy is it for us to change our lives and why?

In 1990, a young American named Christopher McCandless gave up his career plans, left behind everyone he knew, including his family, and went off on an adventure. He was 22 at the time. In an act of kindness, he donated all his savings to the famous charity, Oxfam International, and hitchhiked his way through America to Alaska. His decisions were so unusual for his age that Jon Krakauer wrote a book about them called Into the Wild, and Sean Penn directed a film that had the same title.

Of course, this is an unusual story. Most college graduates would not do quite the same thing. However, studies do show that in teenage years, people are more likely to try out new experiences. Instead of following the family career path, for example, and working his way up the same organisation like his grandfather did, a 15-year-old may dream about becoming a traveller — only to find in his early 20s that this fascination with new places is declining and change is less attractive. This age-related trend can be observed in all cultures.

The reason why people all over the world become less keen to change as they get older may be because people’s lives generally follow similar patterns and involve similar demands. Most people, wherever they are, aim to find a job and a partner. As they get older, they may have young children to look after and possibly elderly family members. These responsibilities cannot be achieved without some degree of consistency, which means that new experiences and ideas may not have a place in the person’s life. New experiences may bring excitement but also insecurity, and so most people prefer to stay with the familiar.

However, not every individual is the same. One toddler may want to play a different game every day and get fed up if nothing changes at the nursery. Another may seek out and play with the same children and toys on every visit. Young children who avoid new experiences will grow up to be more conventional than others. Psychologists argue that those who have more open personalities as children are more open than others when they are older.

They also suggest that young men have a greater interest in novelty than women, although, as they age, this desire for new experiences fades more quickly than it does in women.

The truth is that, as we get older, we prefer the things we know. We tend to order the same meals in restaurants, sit on the same side of the train when we commute to work, go on holiday to the same places and construct our day in the same way. If you are older than 20, remember that your openness to new experiences is slowly declining. So, you are better off making a new start today than postponing it until later.


Find as many words which denote people and copy them into the section below. You may add your own words if any come to your mind

pic3_IELTS|Int|L21

Underline the words in the sentences that you think will help you find the appropriate place in the passage

pic4_IELTS|Int|L21


Work with the text

Making a change

text1

text2

Look at the sentences again and choose the correct option

Choose Yes beside the statement that agrees with the writer’s views. Which words in the passage give you the necessary information?

Which of the statements requires No, and which is Not Given?

Which words in the passage help you support the No option? Why is the other statement Not Given?

Read Questions 1-6 and underline the words that will help you find the appropriate places in the passage

pic5_IELTS|Int|L21

Exam advice

Yes / No / Not Given

  • Underline the words in the statements to help you find the appropriate places in the passage.
  • Look for the words in the passage that have the same meaning as or the opposite meaning to the ideas in the statements.
  • If there is nothing in the passage about the idea, the answer is «Not Given».

Questions 1-6

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in the reading passage?

  • Yes — if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
  • No — if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer
  • Not given — if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

pic5_IELTS|Int|L21

Choose the correct options for Questions 1-6

Questions 1-6

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in the reading passage?

1. Yes — if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

2. No — if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

3. Not given — if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this


Making a change

How easy is it for us to change our lives and why?

In 1990, a young American named Christopher McCandless gave up his career plans, left behind everyone he knew, including his family, and went off on an adventure. He was 22 at the time. In an act of kindness, he donated all his savings to the famous charity, Oxfam International, and hitchhiked his way through America to Alaska. His decisions were so unusual for his age that Jon Krakauer wrote a book about them called Into the Wild, and Sean Penn directed a film that had the same title.

Of course, this is an unusual story. Most college graduates would not do quite the same thing. However, studies do show that in teenage years, people are more likely to try out new experiences. Instead of following the family career path, for example, and working his way up the same organisation like his grandfather did, a 15-year-old may dream about becoming a traveller — only to find in his early 20s that this fascination with new places is declining and change is less attractive. This age-related trend can be observed in all cultures.

The reason why people all over the world become less keen to change as they get older may be because people’s lives generally follow similar patterns and involve similar demands. Most people, wherever they are, aim to find a job and a partner. As they get older, they may have young children to look after and possibly elderly family members. These responsibilities cannot be achieved without some degree of consistency, which means that new experiences and ideas may not have a place in the person’s life. New experiences may bring excitement but also insecurity, and so most people prefer to stay with the familiar.

However, not every individual is the same. One toddler may want to play a different game every day and get fed up if nothing changes at the nursery. Another may seek out and play with the same children and toys on every visit. Young children who avoid new experiences will grow up to be more conventional than others. Psychologists argue that those who have more open personalities as children are more open than others when they are older.

They also suggest that young men have a greater interest in novelty than women, although, as they age, this desire for new experiences fades more quickly than it does in women.

The truth is that, as we get older, we prefer the things we know. We tend to order the same meals in restaurants, sit on the same side of the train when we commute to work, go on holiday to the same places and construct our day in the same way. If you are older than 20, remember that your openness to new experiences is slowly declining. So, you are better off making a new start today than postponing it until later.

Complete this table with words related to the topic of success

Word formation and spelling

We can change the form of words by adding a syllable / syllables to the end of the word (called a suffix):

-ful: success → successful

There are no clear rules — each word and the words which can be formed from it must be learned individually. Some of the most common are listed below.

verb → noun

suffix verb noun
  • -ment
  • -ation / -tion / -sion
  • -er / -or
  • achieve
  • inform
  • research
  • investigate
  • achievement
  • information
  • researcher
  • investigator

adjective → noun

suffix adjective noun
  • -ance
  • -ence
  • -ness
  • important
  • absent
  • lazy
  • importance
  • absence
  • laziness

noun → adjective

suffix noun adjective
  • — y
  • -ful
  • -ous
  • -al
  • sun
  • success
  • fame
  • nature
  • sunny
  • successful
  • famous
  • natural

noun → verb

suffix noun verb
  • — ise/-ize
  • critic
  • criticise/criticize

adjective → verb

suffix adjective verb
  • -ify
  • simple
  • simplify

verb → adjective

suffix verb adjective
  • -ed
  • -ing
  • -able
  • -ive
  • decide
  • work hard
  • agree
  • attract
  • decided
  • hard-working
  • agreeable
  • attractive

adjective → adverb

suffix adjective adverb
-ly

-ally

  • quick
  • basic
  • quickly
  • basically

Spelling words with suffixes

We double the final consonant when we add -«ed», -«ing», -«er» and -«est» to:

  • one — syllable words which end in a consonant — vowel consonant (apart from -w, -x and -y):
    run → running, big → bigger
  • verbs of two or more syllables which end in consonant vowel-consonant and the final syllable is stressed:
    occur → occurred, forget → forgetting (but happened, developing)
  • verbs which end in -«l» after one vowel in British English (in American English they may not double):
    travel → traveller

We don’t double the final consonant when:

  • there are two final consonants:
    depend → depending
  • there are two vowels before the final consonant:
    disappear → disappearance
  • the verb ends in a vowel:
    share → shared
  • the stress is not on the final syllable:
    open → opening
  • the word ends in -«w», -«x» or -«y»:
    slower, relaxed, player

y → i and i → y

  • For words ending in -«y» after a consonant, the «y» become when a suffix is added (except -«ing», see below):
    happy → happiness, try → tries

Note this exception:

day — daily

  • «i» becomes «y» with -«ing»: «y» does not change:
    lie → lying, study → studying, try → trying

When to drop the final —«e»

  • We drop the final —«e» if there is a consonant before it and the suffix begins with a vowel (-«er», —«ed», —«ing», —«ance», —«ation», etc.):
    amaze → amazing, fame → famous
  • We do not drop the final —«e» when the suffix begins with a consonant:
    safe → safety, manage → management

Adding prefixes

  • When we add a syllable like un-, dis- or in- before a root to make it negative, we do not change the spelling:
    appoint → disappoint, satisfied → dissatisfied, like → unlike, necessary → unnecessary

Usually

  • Before words beginning with «r»-, we use «ir»-: irrelevant
  • Before words beginning with «m»— or «p»-, we use «im»-: immature, impatient
  • Before words beginning with «l»-, we use «il»-: illogical, illiterate

But, there are some exceptions: e.g. reliable — unreliable, lucky — unlucky etc.

pic6_IELTS|Int|L21


Choose the correct word in these sentences

Speak on the topic given in the exam clue card

Criteria:

  1. Answer all the points
  2. Introduce and round off the talk
  3. Use some of the signposting phrases
  4. Use the tenses correctly
  5. Sound interested in what you are saying
  6. Look at the examiner while speaking

pic8_IELTS|Int|L21

Describe a positive change in your life

You should say:

  • what the change was about;
  • when it happened;

and describe details of the change happened and how it affected your later life.

Wordlist

1. donate

2. consistency

2. insecurity

4. conventional

5. novelty

6. openness

7. claim

Useful language

  • to follow in the footsteps of
  • an age-related trend
  • life demands
  • creatures of habit

Read the passage title and subheading and complete this sentence with the appropriate words

pic9_IELTS|Int|L21


Reducing errors in memory

Sleep may reduce mistakes in memory, according to a first-of-its-kind study led by a scientist at Michigan State University.

The findings, which appear in the September issue of the journal Learning & Memory, have practical implications for many people, from students doing multiple-choice tests to elderly people confusing their medicine, says Kimberly Fenn, principal investigator and assistant professor of psychology.

«It’s easy to muddle things in your mind,» Fenn says. «This research suggests that after sleep, you’re better able to pick out the incorrect parts of that memory.» Fenn and colleagues from the University of Chicago and Washington University in St Louis studied the presence of incorrect or false memory in groups of college students. While previous research has shown that sleep improves memory, this study is the first one that looks at errors in memory, she said.

Study participants were «trained» by being shown or listening to lists of words. Then, twelve hours later, they were shown individual words and asked to identify which words they had seen or heard in the earlier session. One group of students was trained at 10 a.m. and tested at 10 p.m. after the course of a normal sleepless day. Another group was trained at night and tested twelve hours later in the morning, after about six hours of sleep. Three experiments were conducted. In each experiment, the results showed that the students who had slept did not have as many problems with false memory and chose fewer incorrect words.

How does sleep help? The answer isn’t known, Fenn said, but she suspects it may be due to sleep strengthening the source of the memory. The source, or context in which the information is acquired, is a vital element of the memory process.

In other words, it may be easier to remember something if you can also remember where you first heard or saw it. Or perhaps the people who didn’t sleep as much during the study received so much other information during the day that this affected their memory ability, Fenn said.

Further research is needed, she said, adding that she plans to study different population groups, particularly the elderly. «We know older individuals generally have worse memory performance than younger individuals. We also know from other research that elderly individuals tend to be more prone to false memories,» Fenn said. «Given the work we’ve done, it’s possible that sleep may actually help them to reject this false information. And potentially this could help to improve their quality of life.»

Sources: adapted from Michigan State University News


Use the words in bold in the passage to complete the gaps

pic10_IELTS|Int|L21

Complete the summary using the list of words A-J

A more F ten
B complex G different
C 12 H no
D six I fewer
E less J the same

Reducing errors in memory

Sleep may reduce mistakes in memory, according to a first-of-its-kind study led by a scientist at Michigan State University.

The findings, which appear in the September issue of the journal Learning & Memory, have practical implications for many people, from students doing multiple-choice tests to elderly people confusing their medicine, says Kimberly Fenn, principal investigator and assistant professor of psychology.

«It’s easy to muddle things in your mind,» Fenn says. «This research suggests that after sleep, you’re better able to pick out the incorrect parts of that memory.» Fenn and colleagues from the University of Chicago and Washington University in St Louis studied the presence of incorrect or false memory in groups of college students. While previous research has shown that sleep improves memory, this study is the first one that looks at errors in memory, she said.

Study participants were «trained» by being shown or listening to lists of words. Then, twelve hours later, they were shown individual words and asked to identify which words they had seen or heard in the earlier session. One group of students was trained at 10 a.m. and tested at 10 p.m. after the course of a normal sleepless day. Another group was trained at night and tested twelve hours later in the morning, after about six hours of sleep. Three experiments were conducted. In each experiment, the results showed that the students who had slept did not have as many problems with false memory and chose fewer incorrect words.

How does sleep help? The answer isn’t known, Fenn said, but she suspects it may be due to sleep strengthening the source of the memory. The source, or context in which the information is acquired, is a vital element of the memory process.

In other words, it may be easier to remember something if you can also remember where you first heard or saw it. Or perhaps the people who didn’t sleep as much during the study received so much other information during the day that this affected their memory ability, Fenn said.

Further research is needed, she said, adding that she plans to study different population groups, particularly the elderly. «We know older individuals generally have worse memory performance than younger individuals. We also know from other research that elderly individuals tend to be more prone to false memories,» Fenn said. «Given the work we’ve done, it’s possible that sleep may actually help them to reject this false information. And potentially this could help to improve their quality of life.»

Sources: adapted from Michigan State University News

Listen to the conversation and answer Questions 1-4

pic11_IELTS|Int|L21

Amy Matt

Amy: Hey, Matt, are you coming out tonight?
Matt: I’d love to, Amy, thanks, but I’ve got too much work. I need to get this psychology assignment in by Thursday.
Amy: Oh, what’s it on?
Matt: Happiness, or specifically, the things that make people happy.
Amy: Wow, that’s a big area. How are you approaching it?
Matt: Well. I’ve been looking on the Internet to see what various experts have to say on the subject.
Amy: Did you find anything interesting?
Matt: Well, yes, I did.
Amy: Like?
Matt: Like, for example, there’s a professor at Nottingham University, a guy called Richard Tunney, and he suggests that the more close friends we have, the happier we are. And if you see these friends regularly, go out with them and so on, well, that’s even better.
Amy: I’d have thought that was fairly obvious.
Matt: I guess so. The next one is a bit more interesting, though. Martin Seligman, a professor of psychology at an American university, conducted a happiness experiment with his students.
Amy: What did he do? Give everyone huge amounts of cash and then see how much they smiled? That would help, wouldn’t it?
Matt: Well, perhaps it would. For a short while, anyway. No, what he did was tell half his students to take part in fun activities, like playing video games or going to the cinema, and the other half to do good things.
Amy: Good things?
Matt: You know, like visiting elderly people at a care home, or some other kind of voluntary work. And it was those students who reported a more lasting feeling of happiness.
Amy: That’s interesting.
Matt: Then there’s George Vaillant, a psychiatrist and professor at Harvard Medical School. He’s spent the past 60 years studying people.
Amy: So, I guess he probably knows a bit about them.
Matt: He certainly does. According to him, the thing that really makes people happy is having something to aim for, you know, a goal in the future.
Amy: Right, so I can say «By the time I’m 30, I’m going to be a millionaire,» and that will make me happy.
Matt: Ah, but Vaillant has a warning here. You need to be realistic. It’s no good setting yourself impossible goals, because, well …
Amy: Because you’ll only make yourself unhappy trying to achieve them.
Matt: Exactly.
Amy: So, does anyone mention anything that people normally assume brings happiness? Like a healthy bank account, or an expensive house, something more, er, material?
Matt: Funnily enough, those things aren’t mentioned much. Here’s another interesting one, though. Melanie Hodgson, she’s a professor at Westbrook University, claims that people are happier when they’re getting ready to go on holiday.
Amy: Oh, I love that. Sitting on a beach, relaxing, sightseeing …
Matt: No, not the actual holiday itself, which professor Hodgson says can sometimes be quite stressful …
Amy: That’s true, they can.
Matt: … but the things you do leading up to it. Deciding what you’re going to take with you, what you’re going to see and do, packing your case, that kind of thing.
Amy: I get it. Yes, I can see how that would work.


Questions 1-4

  • What do these experts say makes people happy?
  • Choose four answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-F, next to Questions 1-4.

What makes people happy

A. having an achievable ambition

B. being on holiday

C. helping other people

D. making new friends

E. planning a trip

F. having a social life


Listen to the second part of the conversation and answer Questions 5-10

Matt Amy

Matt: I’ve also found one of those personality tests on the Internet. You know, answer these questions to find out how happy you are.
Amy: Oh, those. They’re a bit of a waste of time, aren’t they? I did one on «How healthy are you?» and the results were completely wrong.
Matt: But they’re quite good fun though, aren’t they?
Amy: Well, yes, especially if you do them with friends. I think it’s important that you shouldn’t take them seriously, though.
Matt: That’s true.
Amy: Anyway, why should I do a test that tells me how happy or healthy or successful I am? I mean, I already know the answers, don’t I? So, I’m not likely to get any surprises, like, oh, according to this test I’m happy — I didn’t expect that!
Matt: OK, I take your point. So what makes you happy?
Amy: Oh, I don’t know. Spending time with people I know and like, I guess. I need people around me.
Matt: Me too. But I need time on my own, as well.
Amy: That doesn’t really bother me, I grew up in a big family, so I’m used to someone always being in the room. If I wanted to be alone, to get away from people, I had to go out for a walk or something. I still do that occasionally. In fact, that’s one thing that makes me happy. A long walk in the countryside. And the advantage is that you’re getting seme exercise too, which is something I don’t usually do.
Matt: But you go running, don’t you?
Amy: Sometimes, but only because I feel I have to. Anyway, back to your assignment. You’ve got all the information you need …
Matt: Not quite. I need to do a bit more research first.
Amy: OK, so you’ll be off to the library, then?
Matt: I would if I knew I could find something useful, but you know how disorganised it is there. It’s impossible to find what you want especially when it comes to psychology books.
Amy: Oh, I know.
Matt: No, give me a computer and the Internet any day.
Amy: Well, good luck with that. If you get bored and want a break, you know where to find me.
Matt: Thanks, but if I don’t get this done. I’ll be in trouble.
Amy: Why don’t you email Tony? He did a similar assignment last year, so he might have a few suggestions.
Matt: That’s a good idea. Have you got his email address?
Amy: Sure, give me a moment while I look it up.
Matt: Thanks.


Questions 5-10

Read the task and prepare your 2-minute speech on the topic «A recent change in your life»

pic12_IELTS|Int|L21

IELTS Speaking Part 2

Clue card

Describe a recent change in your life

You should say:

  • what the change was;
  • when it happened;
  • how you felt about it;

and explain if it was a positive or negative change for you.


  • Speak for no longer than 3 minutes (but not less than 2)
  • Cover all of the points, use the active vocabulary of the lesson

  1. Structure your talk by using your notes and introducing you points clearly.
  2. Use appropriate phrases to mark the stages in your talk.
  3. Give reasons for your answers.
  4. Offer extra details and expand on your answer.
  5. Sound interested in what you are saying.
  6. Speak clearly so that the examiner can hear you easily.
  7. Use a wide range of vocabulary.


1. donate

2. consistency

3. insecurity

4. conventional

5. novelty

6. openness

7. claim


  • to follow in the footsteps of
  • an age-related trend
  • life demands
  • creatures of habit

Stalling for time

  • That’s a(n) interesting/tough/difficult question.
  • I don’t know much about this issue but …
  • I’ve never really thought about it before but …

Giving an opinion

  • Well, I think / suppose / would say …
  • … for two/several reasons.
  • I think most people would agree that …

Self-correcting

  • Or rather …
  • I mean …
  • Or, should I say …

Rephrasing

  • What I mean is …
  • What I want to say is …
  • What I’m trying to say is …

Commenting on your own ideas

  • I know this may sound obvious but …
  • This may sound strange but …
  • I’m sorry to have to say this but …

Giving an example

  • Take … , for example.
  • Look at … , for instance.
  • A good example of this is … .

Introducing other ideas

  • On the other hand, …
  • Or, to look at it another way, …
  • Then again, …

Getting to the point

  • Anyway, to get to the point, …
  • Anyway, the main point I want to make is that …
  • So, in answer to your question, …

Concluding

  • So, that’s why I think …
  • Anyway, that’s why …
  • So, to return to my original point, …


Allow your browser access to your microphone, press the button «Record» and record the speech you have prepared

Урок Homework Курс
  • Humans and animals
  • What to change?
  • Is it easy to change?
  • Changing life
  • Relevant parts - 1
  • Relevant parts - 2
  • Changing words
  • Talking about changes
  • Memory and sleep
  • Mistakes in memory
  • What makes people happy?
  • Recent changes