IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|19. The Earth’s interior

Complete each gap with an appropriate word

Look at the diagram and answer the questions below in your own words

Cliff erosion and fossil exposure

The diagram illustrates how fossils were exposed beneath a cliff as a result of coastal erosion.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

1. What does the diagram show?

2. What are the key stages in the process?

3. What changes in the process are illustrated?

4. How can these changes be compared?

5. How would you organise your answer into paragraphs?

6. What would you write in your overview?

Underline the words which can be useful for the introduction and the description of the diagram

Re-order the sentences so that they produce a sample answer for the Writing task

Identify a participle clause in each sentence and complete the gaps with an appropriate function

Using participle clauses

1. We can use present participle (-ing) and past participle (-ed) clauses with an adverbial meaning. They often give information about the timing, causes, and results of the events described:

reason: Faced with a bill for £10,000, Ivan has taken an extra job. (= Because he is faced …)

condition: Looked after carefully, the plant can live through the winter. (= If it is looked after …)

result: The fruit was expensive, being imported. (simple passive; = … because it was imported)

concession: Having been hunted close to extinction, the rhino is once again common in this area. (perfect passive; = Although it had been hunted close to extinction …)

2. The implied subject of a participle clause (that is, a subject known but not directly mentioned) is usually the same as the subject of the main clause:

Arriving at the party, we saw Ruth standing alone. (= When we arrived … we saw …).

3. When we use not in a participle clause it usually comes before the participle. However, it can follow the participle, depending on meaning:

Not understanding the rules, I found the cricket match boring. (= because I didn’t understand the rules)

Hoping not to be recognised, I chose a seat in a dark corner. (= I hoped that I wouldn’t be recognised)

4. We use a clause beginning with having + past participle rather than a present participle if the action in the main clause is the consequence of the event in the participle clause:

Having broken her leg the last time she went, Giorgia decided not to go on the school skiing trip this year. (or After breaking her leg …; not Breaking her leg …)

Note:

Use a comma to separate the main clause (Copernicus realised that the Earth revolves around the Sun) and the consequence (changing the way people saw the Universe).

pic2_IELTS|Upper-Int|L19


Complete the second sentences so as it has the same meaning as the first one using a participle clause (use 2-4 words in each gap)

Look at the Writing task 1 and the process diagram below and answer the questions

Writing Task 1

The pictures below show the stages in the erosion of a headland.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Erosion of a headland

1 — weak areas — rock eroded

2 — cave becomes arch

e.g. Durdle Door, Dorset

3 — water beats against roof

4 — stack

5 — headland retreating

6 — stack

7 — stump


1. What is happening in the process?

2. How would you describe the key stages?

3. What comparisons can you make?

4. What information can an overview comprise?

Look at this Writing task. Quickly note down some vocabulary you could use to describe the key stages

vocabulary_IELTS|L19


Exam tips

Writing Task 1

1. Describe key stages in the process in a logical order making comparisons where appropriate.

2. Use suitable words and phrases to structure and link the process clearly.

3. Remember to include an overview summarising the main features of the process.

4. Vary your vocabulary and use your own words as far as possible (e.g. do not lift long phrases from the task instructions).

Look at the task and a process diagram and write a summary

Writing Task 1

The diagrams below show the stages in the erosion of a headland.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant

Erosion of a headland

[h 5 p id=»10403″]

1 — weak areas — rock eroded

[h 5 p id=»10404″]

2 — cave becomes arch

e.g. Durdle Door, Dorset

[h 5p id=»10 405″]

3 — water beats against roof

4 — stack

[h 5 p id=»10406″]

5 — headland retreating

6 — stack

7 — stump


Exam tips

Writing Task 1

1. Describe key stages in the process in a logical order making comparisons where appropriate.

2. Use suitable words and phrases to structure and link the process clearly.

3. Remember to include an overview summarising the main features of the process.

4. Vary your vocabulary and use your own words as far as possible (e.g. do not lift long phrases from the task instructions).

pic3_IELTS|Upper-Int|L19

Proofread the sample answer below. Choose the same questions as a in the checklist


pic4_IELTS|Upper-Int|L19

Coastal formation of sedimentary rock

Read the list below and match the captions A-K with the signs 1-11 in the diagrams

pic2_IELTS|Upper-Int|L19

Choose the best option to complete the sentences

Look at the Writing task 1 below and the diagrams and identify the main trends and key features

[h 5 p id=»10408″]

Writing Task 1

The diagrams below show how sedimentary rock is formed in coastal areas.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.


Write your answer to the Writing task above in about 20 minutes

Wordlist

Wordlist2_L19|IELTS|Upper-Int

Useful language

  • a high tide
  • a low tide
  • coastal erosion

Writing Task 1

Summary

  • Warm-up
  • Making heads or tails
  • Putting into a logical order
  • Identify a participle clause
  • Generating ideas
  • Get down to it
  • To perfection
  • How coastlines form
  • Grammar task
  • The course of nature
  • How coastlines form
  • Grammar task
  • The course of nature
  1. 1. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|1. Being a high achiever
  2. 2. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|2. University life
  3. 3. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|3. Getting a qualification
  4. 4. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|4. Career plans
  5. 5. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 1
  6. 6. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|5. Perceiving colours
  7. 7. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|6. The art of colour
  8. 8. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|7. The best colour
  9. 9. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|8. Adding colour
  10. 10. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 2
  11. 11. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|9. In therapy
  12. 12. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|10. Placebo effect
  13. 13. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|11. Changing life expectancy
  14. 14. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|12. Leading a healthy life
  15. 15. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 3
  16. 16. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|13. Works of art
  17. 17. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|14. Aboriginal art
  18. 18. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|15. Being good at arts
  19. 19. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|16. What is a masterpiece?
  20. 20. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 4
  21. 21. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|17. Collecting fossils
  22. 22. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|18. Evolution and survival
  23. 23. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|19. The Earth's interior
  24. 24. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|20. A valuable possession
  25. 25. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 5
  26. 26. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|21. The role of technology
  27. 27. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|22. Film making and technology
  28. 28. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|23. The impact of IT on society
  29. 29. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|24. Number one website
  30. 30. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 6
  31. 31. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|25. Environmental issues
  32. 32. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|26. Wildlife wonders
  33. 33. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|27. Endangered species
  34. 34. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|28. A symbol of a nation
  35. 35. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 7
  36. 36. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|29. Exploring space
  37. 37. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|30. Observing the stars
  38. 38. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|31. Space tourism prospects
  39. 39. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|32. Extraterrestrial phenomena
  40. 40. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 8
  41. 41. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Exam Part 1
  42. 42. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Exam Part 2