IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 4

Vocabulary chase

Before the lesson, think about these questions and revise the vocabulary

What does success in the arts mean? How can one gain it?

Useful language

  • to do one’s best
  • to do business with
  • to do damage to
  • to do a research on
  • to have advantages for
  • to have choice
  • to have an impact on
  • to take advantage of
  • to take into account
  • to take action on
  • to make advances in
  • to make mistakes with
  • to make a profit from
  • to make use of


What is the role of arts and crafts in school curriculum?

Wordlist

1. all-round
2. canvas
3. cave
4. bark
5. binder
6. concern
7. date back
8. durable
9. handicraft
10. headteacher
11. indigenous
12.naturalistic
13. ochre
14. palette
15. pigment
16. pottery
17. preserve
18. reveal
19. sap
20. shelter
21. a low priority


Should all the people be taught arts?

Useful language

  • Experts would argue
  • From my point of view
  • I tend to think that
  • I personally would agree with
  • I firmly believe
  • It is often suggested
  • It is generally believed
  • It is often claimed
  • Most teachers have claimed that
  • My personal belief is that
  • These people are often thought to be
  • The majority of people take the view that


What are the current tendencies in art?

Useful language

  • as a rule
  • broadly speaking
  • by and large
  • generally speaking
  • I tend to
  • in general
  • on average
  • on the whole
  • to be liable to
  • to have a tendency to

Grammar_IELTS

Revise the grammar rules

We can begin a clause with as, because, seeing that, seeing as, or since to give a reason for a particular situation:

  • As it was getting late, I decided I should go home.
  • We must be near the beach, because I can hear the waves.
  • Since he was going to be away on his birthday, we celebrated before he left.
  • We could go and visit Natalia, seeing that we have to drive past her house anyway.

Note that —

* it is common and acceptable for because to begin a sentence, as in:

Because everything looked different, I had no idea where to go.

* to give reasons in spoken English, we most often use because. So is also commonly used to express a similar meaning. Compare:

  • Because my mother’s ill, I won’t be able to come. («because» introduces the reason) and
  • Му mother’s ill, so I won’t be able to come. («so» introduces the result.)

* when it means «because», since is rather formal. It is uncommon in conversation, but is frequently used in this way in academic writing:

  • I had to go outside because I was feeling awful. («since» is unlikely in an informal context)
  • The results of this analysis can be easily compared to future observations since satellite coverage will remain continuous. (more likely than «because» in this formal context.)

* seeing that is used in informal English. Some people also use seeing as in informal speech:

  • Joel just had to apologise, seeing that/as he knew he’d made a mistake.

In formal or literary written English we can also introduce a reason in a clause beginning for, in that, or, less commonly, in as much as. For is a formal alternative to «because»; in that and in as much as introduce clauses which clarify what has been said by adding detail:

  • We must begin planning now, for the future may bring unexpected changes. (not For the future …, we must …)
  • The film is unusual in that it features only four actors. (or In that …, the film is …)
  • Clara and I have quite an easy life, in as much as neither of us has to work too hard but we earn quite a lot of money. (or In as much as …, Clara and I …)

The prepositions because of, due to, and owing to can also be used before a noun or noun phrase to give a reason for something:

  • We were delayed because of an accident.
  • She was unable to run owing to / due to a leg injury. (= because of a leg injury.)
  • We have less money to spend owing to / due to budget cuts. (= because of budget cuts.)

Note that we don’t use because alone before a noun or noun phrase:

  • We were delayed because there was an accident. (not … because an accident.)

In current English we usually avoid owing to directly after a form of be:

  • The company’s success is due to the new director. (not … is owing to …)

However, owing to is used after be + a degree adverb such as entirely, largely, mainly, partly:

  • The low election turnout was partly due to / owing to the bad weather.

We can often use either it was due to … that or it was owing to … that:

  • It was owing to his encouragement that she applied for the job. (or It was due tothat)

We can use for and with followed by a noun phrase to give a reason (compare B above):

  • She was looking all the better for her stay in hospital. (= «as a result of»)
  • With so many people ill, the meeting was cancelled. (= «as a result of many people being ill»)


In order / so as + to-infinitive

To talk about the purpose of an action we can use in order / so as + to-infinitive:

  • Не took the course in order to get а better job.
  • Trees are being planted by the roadside so as to reduce traffic noise.

In spoken English in particular it is much more common simply to use a to-infinitive without «in order» or «so as» to express the same meaning:

  • Не took the course to get a better job.

We rarely use just not + to-infinitive, but instead use so as not to or in order not to:

  • Не kept the speech vague in order not to commit himself to one side or the other. (not … vague not to commit himself …)
  • I wrote down her name so as not to forget it. (not… name not to forget…)

However, in contrastive sentences we can use not + to-infinitive, but + to-infinitive as in:

  • I came to see you not (in order / so as) to complain, but (in order / so as) to apologise.

Note that we can put in order / so as before the to-infinitives in sentences like this.

In order that and so that

We also use in order that and so that to talk about a purpose. Compare:

  • She stayed at work late in order / so as to complete the report. and
  • She stayed at work late in order that / so that she could complete the report. (notin order that / so that to complete the report.)

So that is more common than in order that, and is used in less formal situations. Note that informally we can leave out that after so, but we always include it after in order.

A present tense verb in the main clause is usually followed by a present tense verb (or a modal with present or future reference — can, will, etc.) in the clause beginning in order that / so that. A past tense verb in the main clause is usually followed by a past tense verb (or a modal with past reference — could, would, etc.) in the clause beginning in order that / so that. Modal verbs are very often used after in order that / so that:

  • Regular checks are made in order that safety standards are maintained.
  • Advice is given in order that students can choose the best course.
  • Did you give up your job so that you could take care of your mother?
  • I hid the presents so that Marianna wouldn’t find them.

Such that and in such a way that / as to; such … that

In formal contexts, such as academic writing, we can use such that to introduce a result:

  • The model was designed such that the value of x could be calculated. (= «in a way that has the result that …»; orin order that …; orso that …)

Less formally we can also use in such a way that or in such a way as + to-infinitive with a similar meaning:

  • The advertisement is printed in such a way that two very different pictures can be seen depending on how you look at it.
  • Our business is managed in such a way as to minimise its environmental impact.

We can also use such + noun phrase + that to introduce a result:

  • It is such a popular play that all the performances were sold out after the first day.

Read the passage and complete questions 1-6

pic1_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 4

Questions 1-6

Complete the table below.

Choose no more than two words from the passage for each answer.


A disaster of Titanic proportions

At 11.39 p.m. on the evening of Sunday 14 April 1912, lookouts Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee on the forward mast of the Titanic sighted an eerie, black mass coming into view directly in front of the ship. Fleet picked up the phone to the helm, waited for Sixth Officer Moody to answer, and yelled «Iceberg, right ahead!» The greatest disaster in maritime history was about to be set in motion.

Thirty-seven seconds later, despite the efforts of officers in the bridge and engine room to steer around the iceberg, the Titanic struck a piece of submerged ice, bursting rivets in the ship’s hull and flooding the first five watertight compartments. The ship’s designer, Thomas Andrews, carried out a visual inspection of the ship’s damage and informed Captain Smith at midnight that the ship would sink in less than two hours. By 12.30 a.m., the lifeboats were being filled with women and children, after Smith had given the command for them to be uncovered and swung out 15 minutes earlier. The first lifeboat was successfully lowered 15 minutes later, with only 28 of its 65 seats occupied. By 1.15 a.m., the waterline was beginning to reach the Titanic’s name on the ship’s bow, and over the next hour every lifeboat would be released as officers struggled to maintain order amongst the growing panic on board.

The closing moments of the Titanic’s sinking began shortly after 2 a.m., as the last lifeboat was lowered and the ship’s propellers lifted out of the water, leaving the 1,500 passengers still on board to surge towards the stern. At 2.17 a.m., Harold Bride and Jack Philips tapped out their last wireless message after being relieved of duty as the ship’s wireless operators, and the ship’s band stopped playing. Less than a minute later, occupants of the lifeboats witnessed the ship’s lights flash once, then go black, and a huge roar signalled the Titanic’s contents plunging towards the bow, causing the front half of the ship to break off and go under. The Titanic’s stern bobbed up momentarily, and at 2.20 a.m., the ship finally disappeared beneath the frigid waters.

What or who was responsible for the scale of this catastrophe? Explanations abound, some that focus on very small details. Due to a last minute change in the ship’s officer line-up, iceberg lookouts Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee were making do without a pair of binoculars that an officer transferred off the ship in Southampton had left in a cupboard onboard, unbeknownst to any of the ship’s crew. Fleet, who survived the sinking, insisted at a subsequent inquiry that he could have identified the iceberg in time to avert disaster if he had been in possession of the binoculars.

Less than an hour before the Titanic struck the iceberg, wireless operator Cyril Evans on the Californian, located just 20 miles to the north, tried to contact operator Jack Philips on the Titanic to warn him of pack ice in the area. «Shut up, shut up, you’re jamming my signal», Philips replied. «I’m busy.» The Titanic’s wireless system had broken down for several hours earlier that day, and Philips was clearing a backlog of personal messages that passengers had requested to be sent to family and friends in the USA. Nevertheless, Captain Smith had maintained the ship’s speed of 22 knots despite multiple earlier warnings of ice ahead. It has been suggested that Smith was under pressure to make headlines by arriving early in New York, but maritime historians such as Richard Howell have countered this perception, noting that Smith was simply following common procedure at the time, and not behaving recklessly.

One of the strongest explanations for the severe loss of life has been the fact that the Titanic did not carry enough lifeboats for everyone on board. Maritime regulations at the time tied lifeboat capacity to ship size, not to the number of passengers on board. This meant that the Titanic, with room for 1,178 of its 2,222 passengers, actually surpassed the Board of Trade’s requirement that it carry lifeboats for 1,060 of its passengers. Nevertheless, with lifeboats being lowered less than half full in many cases, and only 712 passengers surviving despite a two and a half hour window of opportunity, more lifeboats would not have guaranteed more survivors in the absence of better training and preparation. Many passengers were confused about where to go after the order to launch lifeboats was given; a lifeboat drill scheduled for earlier on the same day that the Titanic struck the iceberg was cancelled by Captain Smith, in order to allow passengers to attend church.


Read the task in the box and complete questions 7-13

Questions 7-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

Choose:

True — if the statement agrees with the information

False — if the statement contradicts the information

Not Given — if there is no information on this


Exam tips

Table completion

  1. Check how many words you are allowed to use.
  2. Use the title to find the right part of the passage.
  3. Write answers exactly as they are spelled in the passage.

Exam tips

T/F/NG questions

1. Quickly find the part of the passage that deals with each statement. You should be able to find this, even when the answer is ‘Not given’.

2. The answers may all be located in one part of the passage or they may occur at different points across the whole passage.

Listen to the recording once only and do the tasks below

pic2_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 4

Section 4

You will hear a talk given by a guest lecturer in the Continuing Education Department. First you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40.

Listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 40.

Good evening. I’d like to thank the Continuing Education Department for hosting this series of lectures on «People behind the names you thought were fiction». Welcome to this talk on «The Grand Old Duke of York». I’m sure you’re all familiar with the old nursery rhyme: The Grand Old Duke of York. He had ten thousand men. He marched them up to the top of the hill. And he marched them down again, and so on. But did you know that the Duke of York immortalized in this popular song was actually Frederick Augustus, second son of King George the Third of England and Queen Charlotte? He achieved fame in this way because of the humiliation he suffered at the hands of the French during the Revolutionary Wars at the end of the 18th century.

Frederick was born on the 16th of August 1763 and from the age of seventeen he had been trained as a soldier. When war broke out between England and France in 1793, his father, the king, insisted that he should command the British contingent that was being dispatched to Flanders to co-operate with the Austrians and the Dutch. The Duke was a brave soldier, but, remember, he was only thirty at the time; not only was he young but he was also inexperienced in battle and was unable to cope with the enthusiastic French Revolutionary Army. He was let down by his allies too, and in spite of the arrival of ten thousand fresh troops from England, his campaigns were a disaster.

He was driven out of Dunkirk in September 1793, Flanders in May 1794, and Belgium in July 1794. Finally, during the winter of 1794 to 1795, his army retreated to the border of Hanover. And…with his unsuccessful campaigns over, the Duke returned to England. It was after this military fiasco that the Duke of York came to be (rather unkindly) satirized in song.

Would you believe, despite all this, King George the Third arranged his son’s promotion to the position of Commander-in-Chief of the army in 1798? And, in the following year, he was appointed to command an army sent to invade Holland. Again he was unsuccessful and this confirmed the general opinion that he was not capable of commanding an army in the field.

Nevertheless, the rhyme is a bit cruel and harsh because it doesn’t take into account the nature of the soldiers who served with Frederick. All the blame for lack of success should not have been attached to the Duke alone because the army he had under his command was made up from what is commonly described as «the scum of the earth» — this is a somewhat offensive term used to refer to a group of people regarded as despicable and worthless. Who were they — these ordinary soldiers? Well, they were mostly vicious, brutal ex-convicts or raw recruits and elderly men. The officers who commanded them were all untrained as military men. In fact, they were anybody who could afford to buy a commission.

Urn, but here’s the really great thing that, unfortunately, the Duke of York is not remembered for: he realized that this was a hopeless kind of army and he set about improving conditions in order to recruit higher quality soldiers. He introduced padres — are you familiar with the term? No? Well, let me explain… you see, members of the British Armed Forces are generally Christians of one denomination or another, and a padre is a Christian cleric or chaplain who ministers to the soldiers and attends to their spiritual needs without belonging to any particular grouping within the Christian faith.

Now, where was I? Yes, Frederick introduced padres, doctors and veterinary surgeons to the battlefield. Why vets? To attend to the horses, of course! Remember we’re talking about late 18th century battlefields. He was also the founder of the Royal Military College for the training of officers at Sandhurst — yes, the very same one where the princes and other members of the royal family receive their military training today! Frederick also founded the Duke of York’s School in London for sons of soldiers killed in battle. His name is perhaps better commemorated by this school in Chelsea than by the column that stands at the top of Waterloo Steps in St. James’s Park.

In 1807, the Duke was involved in a scandal with a woman and as a result resigned as Commander-in-Chief but he was reinstated in 1811 by his elder brother, the Prince Regent, who later became George the Fourth of England. He continued in this post until his death in 1827.

That is the end of section 4. You now have half a minute to check your answers.



Read the instructions and complete the notes


Exam tips

Note-completion

1. Quickly read the title and the notes to see the overall structure.

2. Make sure the word or phrase you use is the right part of speech (noun, noun phrase, verb, adjective, etc.).

3. Use words you actually hear. If you can’t, use words that express the same idea.

Read the task and prepare your 2-minute speech on the topic «A piece of music you like»

Part 2 Individual Long Turn

Before you talk, you’ll have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes if you wish.


Describe a song or a piece of music you like.

You should say:

  • what the song or music is;
  • what kind of song or music it is;
  • where you first heard it

and explain why you like it.


Exam tips

Speaking Part 2

  1. Use your notes and the task to give your talk a clear structure.
  2. Use linking and pausing to give your speech a natural-sounding rhythm.
  3. Be prepared to answer one or two questions on your talk when you have finished. (You only need to give very brief answers.)

Speak no longer than 2 minutes.

Cover all of the points and provide a relevant answer.

Allow your browser the access to the microphone, press the button «Record» and record the speech you have prepared

Read the task in the green box. Then plan your answer by writing some key notes that are true for you in the table below

pic9_IELTS|Int|L14

Writing Task 2

Some modern artists receive huge sums of money for the things they create, while others struggle to survive. Governments should take steps to resolve this unfair situation.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Government regulation
Reasons in favour

Reasons against

Examples

Examples


Write a discursive essay making use of the notes above. You should write at least 250 words, and spend about 35 minutes on the task

  1. as a rule
  2. by and large
  3. a canvas
  4. to concern
  5. durable
  6. Experts would argue
  7. From my point of view
  8. generally speaking
  9. to have a tendency to
  10. I personally would agree with
  11. I firmly believe
  12. It is often claimed
  13. a low priority
  14. My personal belief is that
  15. naturalistic
  16. on average
  17. on the whole
  18. a palette
  19. a pigment
  20. The majority of people take the view that


Exam tips

Writing Task 2

  1. Start your introductory paragraph with a general statement about the topic and state your position.
  2. Keep your position clear throughout your answer.
  3. Make sure the sentences in each paragraph follow a logical sequence.
  4. Support your main ideas with reasons, examples and consequences.
  5. Summarise your position in the final paragraph, but don’t introduce new points or ideas.

If you open the lesson plan you will be able to assign separate pages as homework or all the homework pages at once.

  • Revise the vocabulary
  • Revise the grammar
  • The Titanic
  • The Grand Old Duke's story
  • Catchy tunes
  • Art: for love or money?
  • Homework
  • Homework
  1. 1. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|1. Being a high achiever
  2. 2. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|2. University life
  3. 3. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|3. Getting a qualification
  4. 4. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|4. Career plans
  5. 5. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 1
  6. 6. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|5. Perceiving colours
  7. 7. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|6. The art of colour
  8. 8. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|7. The best colour
  9. 9. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|8. Adding colour
  10. 10. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 2
  11. 11. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|9. In therapy
  12. 12. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|10. Placebo effect
  13. 13. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|11. Changing life expectancy
  14. 14. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|12. Leading a healthy life
  15. 15. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 3
  16. 16. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|13. Works of art
  17. 17. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|14. Aboriginal art
  18. 18. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|15. Being good at arts
  19. 19. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|16. What is a masterpiece?
  20. 20. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 4
  21. 21. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|17. Collecting fossils
  22. 22. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|18. Evolution and survival
  23. 23. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|19. The Earth's interior
  24. 24. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|20. A valuable possession
  25. 25. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 5
  26. 26. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|21. The role of technology
  27. 27. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|22. Film making and technology
  28. 28. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|23. The impact of IT on society
  29. 29. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|24. Number one website
  30. 30. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 6
  31. 31. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|25. Environmental issues
  32. 32. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|26. Wildlife wonders
  33. 33. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|27. Endangered species
  34. 34. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|28. A symbol of a nation
  35. 35. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 7
  36. 36. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|29. Exploring space
  37. 37. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|30. Observing the stars
  38. 38. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|31. Space tourism prospects
  39. 39. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|32. Extraterrestrial phenomena
  40. 40. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 8
  41. 41. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Exam Part 1
  42. 42. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Exam Part 2