IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 5

pic1_IELTS|Int|Revision 6

Before the lesson, think about these questions and revise the vocabulary

How does the process of learning English at Skysmart differ from your past learning experience?

Wordlist

1. afterwards

2. eventually

3. gradually

4. lastly

Useful language

  • whilst

Have you got any special thing reminding you about the past?

Wordlist

1. acquire

2. antique

3. attic

4. bead

5. clutter

6. faded

7. hoarder

8. inheritance

9. inherit

10. necklace

Useful language

  • chipped

How does erosion change relief?

Wordlist

1. amber

2. boulder

3. coastline

4. crack

5. erode

6. dislodge

7. expose

8. fissure

9. headland

10. hollow

11. loose

12. pebble

13. retreat

14. sedimentary

15. stump

Useful language

  • a high tide
  • a low tide
  • coastal erosion

 

How has the life changed in the last centuries?

Wordlist

1. bury

2. decelerate

3. degrade

4. disorganised

5. expose

6. illiteracy

7. inhospitable

8. irreplaceable

9. irreversible

10. malfunction

11. malpractice

12. misinterpret

13. non-existent

14. worthless

15. underestimate

16. unstable

17. shipwreck

Useful language

  • entombed
  • misdirecting

Grammar

Revise the grammar rules

Participle Clauses with Adverbial Meaning 1

We can use present participle (-ing) and past participle (-ed) clauses with an adverbial meaning. They often give information about the timing, causes, and results of the events described:

  • Opening her eyes, the baby began to cry. (= When she opened her eyes …)
  • Faced with a bill for £10,000, Ivan has taken an extra job. (= Because he is faced …)
  • Looked after carefully, the plant can live through the winter. (= If it is looked after …)
  • Having finished the book, I had a holiday. (perfect; = When/Because I had finished …)
  • The fruit was expensive, being imported. (simple passive; = … because it was imported)
  • Having been hunted close to extinction, the rhino is once again common in this area. (perfect passive; = Although it had been hunted close to extinction …)

The implied subject of a participle clause (that is, a subject known but not directly mentioned) is usually the same as the subject of the main clause:

  • Arriving at the party, we saw Ruth standing alone. (= When we arrived … we saw …)

However, sometimes the implied subject is not referred to in the main clause:

  • Having wanted to drive a train all his life, this was an opportunity not to be missed.

In careful speech and writing we avoid different subjects for the participle and main clause:

  • Turning round quickly, the door hit me in the face. (first implied subject = «I»; second subject = «the door»)

would be better as:

  • When I turned round quickly, the door hit me in the face.

In formal English, the participle clause sometimes has its own subject, which is often a pronoun or includes one:

  • The collection of vases is priceless, some being over 2000 years old.
  • Her voice breaking with emotion, Vasiliki spoke about her father’s illness.

We use the present participle (-ing) clause to talk about something happening at the same time as an event in the main clause, or to give information about the facts given in the main clause.

When we use not in a participle clause it usually comes before the participle. However, it can follow the participle, depending on meaning:

  • Not understanding the rules, I found the cricket match boring. (= because I didn’t understand the rules)
  • Hoping not to be recognised, I chose a seat in a dark corner. (= I hoped that I wouldn’t be recognised)

We use a clause beginning with having + past participle rather than a present participle if the action in the main clause is the consequence of the event in the participle clause:

  • Having broken her leg the last time she went, Giorgia decided not to go on the school skiing trip this year. (or After breaking her leg …; not Breaking her leg …)

We can use either a present participle (-ing) clause or a having + past participle clause with a similar meaning when the action in the participle clause is complete before the action in the main clause begins. Compare:

  • Taking off his shoes, Ram walked into the house. (Having taken off … has a similar meaning)
    and
  • Running across the field, I fell and hurt my ankle. (= While I was running …; «Having run …» would suggest that I fell after I had run across the field)

We can use either a being + past participle or a having been + past participle (-ed) to express the passive meaning. Compare:

  • He told us about the experiments being carried on in his laboratory.
  • Having been told the bad news, Susan sat down and cried.

Attachments

Participle_P1


Real and Unreal conditionals with «If» 2

When the first verb in a conditional if-clause is should, were, or had we can leave out if and put the verb at the start of the clause. We do this particularly in formal or literary English, and only in hypothetical conditionals (a type of unreal conditional which answers the question «What would happen if …?»):

  • Should any of this cost you anything, send me the bill. (= If any of this should cost …)
  • It would be embarrassing, were she to find out the truth. (= … if she were to find out …)
  • Had they not rushed Jo to hospital, she would have died. (= If they hadn’t rushed Jo …)

We don’t usually use if … will in conditional clauses. However, we can use if … will — * when we talk about a result of something in the main clause. Compare:

  • Open a window if it will help you to sleep. (orif it helps you to sleep; «Helping you to sleep» is the result of opening the window) and
  • I will be angry if it turns out that you are wrong. (not … if it will turn out …; «Turning out that you are wrong» is not the result of being angry)

* in requests or with the meaning «if you are willing to» (or ifwould to be more polite):

  • If you will/would take your seats, ladies and gentlemen, we can begin the meeting.

* in real conditionals when we want to show that we disapprove of something. In this case, will is stressed in speech:

ALEX: I’m tired.

PAULA: Well, if you will go to bed so late, I’m not surprised.

Note that we can use if … won’t when we talk about a refusal to do something:

  • There’s no point in trying to teach the class if they won’t pay attention.

In a real conditional sentence, we use if … happen to, if … should, or if … should happen to to talk about something which may be possible, but is not very likely. If … happen to is most common in spoken English:

  • If you happen to be in our area, drop in and see us. (or If you should [happen to] be …)

Note that we don’t usually use this pattern in unreal conditionals talking about states or events in the if-clause which the speaker perceives as highly unlikely or impossible:

  • If the North Sea froze in winter, you could walk from London to Oslo. (but probably not If the North Sea happened to freeze / should (happen to) freeze in winter …)

In comparison clauses we can use as if followed by a noun phrase, -ing clause, past participle (-ed) clause, or to-infinitive to introduce a comparison with a situation described in the main clause. We do this to give an explanation or to say that something appears to be the case but is not:

  • Magnus walked in as if nothing had happened.
  • His hands made a circular motion, as if steering a bus through a sharp bend.
  • When he caught the ball, Lee fell to the floor as if hit by a bullet.
  • As if to convince herself that Luis was really there, she gently touched his cheek.

Note that we can use as though instead of as if, and in informal speech some people use like with the same meaning:

  • The crowd reacted as though they were watching a boxing match. (oras if …)
  • Не walked into the room like nothing had happened. (oras if … )

Attachments

Rules_1

Rules_2


If I Were You …; Imagine He Were to Win

In unreal conditional sentences we can use were after any subject in the if-clause, including singular first and third person subjects (e.g. I / she / he / it). This use of were is sometimes called the past subjunctive, and is generally preferred only in formal contexts. Note that although the verb has a past form, reference is to the imagined present or future:

  • If your mother were here, I’m sure she wouldn’t let you eat all those chocolates.
  • Му job would not exist if it were not for government funding.

Was can be used instead of were with the same meaning («If your mother was here …», etc.). However, we prefer were rather than was when we give advice with If I were you …;

  • If I were you, I’d take it back to the shop. It’s got a hole in it. (rather than If I was you…)

Were is used in this way in other patterns when we talk about imaginary situations — (i) when we use were + subject + to-infinitive or were + subject as a more formal alternative to if + subject + was / were:

  • Were the election to be held today, the Liberals would win easily. (or If the election was / were held today …)
  • Were I not in my seventies and rather unfit, I might consider taking up squash. (or If I wasn’t / weren’t in my seventies and rather unfit …)

(ii) after wish:

  • I enjoy my job enormously, but I wish it were closer to home. (or … I wish it was …)
  • Of course I’m pleased that Jan has been given the award. I only wish he weren’t so boastful about it. (or … I only wish he wasn’t …)

(iii) after if only when we express our regret that a situation isn’t different:

  • «If your job is so bad, why don’t you leave?» «If only it were that simple.» (or If only it was … )
  • I’d really like to do accounting. If only I weren’t so poor at maths. (or If only I wasn’t …)

(iv) after would (’d) rather and would (‘d) sooner when we talk about preferences:

  • I feel embarrassed about what happened and would rather the event were forgotten. (orwas forgotten.)
  • «I’ve arranged a meeting for the end of July.» «l’d sooner it were earlier, if possible.» (orit was earlier.)

(v) in sentences or clauses beginning with suppose, supposing and imagine:

  • Suppose I were to lower the price by £100. Would you consider buying the car then? (or Suppose I was to lower … )
  • I know it looks rather dirty now, but imagine the house were (to be) repainted. It would look a lot more attractive. (or … imagine the house was (to be) repainted.)

And in comparisons we can use were(vi) after as if and as though and even if:

  • I remember stepping off the boat in New York as if it were yesterday.
  • Despite losing the election, she continues to act as though she were prime minister.
  • It’s too late to start the work this year even if it were possible to find the money for it.

Attachments

Rules_3

Read the task in the box and complete the questions

Exam tips

Matching information

  1. Underline the key ideas in each question.
  2. Start with Paragraph A and decide if it contains information which matches a question. If there is no match, go on to the next paragraph.
  3. Read carefully the instructions, as they may have some variations, e.g. the rubric You may use any letter more than once suggests that a paragraph may contain more than one piece of information, in other cases you will not need to use all the paragraphs.

Matching features

  1. Underline the key ideas in the statements.
  2. Scan the passage for the options (А, В, С, etc.) and underline every reference to them. (They are always in the same order in the passage as they are in the box.)
  3. Read around each option carefully and match it to the statement(s). If there are fewer options than statements, you will need to use some of them more than once. If there are more options than statements, do not use all the options.

pic1_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 5

Questions 14-19

The Reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-H.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes Question 14-19.

Monkeys and Forests

As an east wind blasts through a gap in the Cordillera de Tilaran, a rugged mountain range that splits northern Costa Rica in half, a female mantled howler monkey moves through the swaying trees of the forest canopy.

A Ken Glander, a primatologist from Duke University, gazes into the canopy, tracking the female’s movements. Holding a dart gun, he waits with infinite patience for the right moment to shoot. With great care, Glander aims and fires. Hit in the rump, the monkey wobbles. This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch in Guanacaste province. Other native primates — white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys — once were common in this area, too, but vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. Most of the surrounding land was clear-cut for pasture.

B Howlers persist at La Pacifica, Glander explains, because they are leaf-eaters. They eat fruit, when it’s available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, do not depend on large areas of fruiting trees. ‘Howlers can survive anyplace you have half a dozen trees, because their eating habits are so flexible,’ he says. In forests, life is an arms race between trees and the myriad creatures that feed on leaves. Plants have evolved a variety of chemical defenses, ranging from bad-tasting tannins, which bind with plant-produced nutrients, rendering them indigestible, to deadly poisons, such as alkaloids and cyanide.

C All primates, including humans, have some ability to handle plant toxins. ‘We can detoxify a dangerous poison known as caffeine, which is deadly to a lot of animals,’ Glander says. For leaf-eaters, long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin can increase their ability to defuse the poison and absorb the leaf nutrients. The leaves that grow in regenerating forests, like those at La Pacifica, are actually more howler friendly than those produced by the undisturbed, centuries-old trees that survive farther south, in the Amazon Basin. In younger forests, trees put most of their limited energy into growing wood, leaves and fruit, so they produce much lower levels of toxin than do well-established, old-growth trees.

D The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica. The park hosts populations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins and spider monkeys. Yet the forests there are young, most of them less than 50 years old. Capuchins were the first to begin using the reborn forests, when the trees were as young as 14 years. Howlers, larger and heavier than capuchins, need somewhat older trees, with limbs that can support their greater body weight. A working ranch at Hacienda La Pacifica also explain their population boom in Santa Rosa. ‘Howlers are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys for several reasons,’ Fedigan explains. ‘They can live within a small home range, as long as the trees have the right food for them. Spider monkeys, on the other hand, occupy a huge home range, so they can’t make it in fragmented habitat.’

E Howlers also reproduce faster than do other monkey species in the area. Capuchins don’t bear their first young until about 7 years old, and spider monkeys do so even later, but howlers give birth for the first time at about 3.5 years of age. Also, while a female spider monkey will have a baby about once every four years, well-fed howlers can produce an infant every two years.

F The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes. This ability gives them a real advantage over capuchin and spider monkeys, which have suffered during the long, ongoing drought in Guanacaste.

G Growing human population pressures in Central and South America have led to persistent destruction of forests. During the 1990s, about 1.1 million acres of Central American forest were felled yearly. Alejandro Estrada, an ecologist at Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico, has been exploring how monkeys survive in a landscape increasingly shaped by humans. He and his colleagues recently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. Like many varieties of coffee, cacao plants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted fig, monkey pod and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop. The howlers moved in about 25 years ago after nearby forests were cut. This strange habitat, a hodgepodge of cultivated native and exotic plants, seems to support about as many monkeys as would a same-sized patch of wild forest. The howlers eat the leaves and fruit of the shade trees, leaving the valuable cacao pods alone, so the farmers tolerate them.

H Estrada believes the monkeys bring underappreciated benefits to such farms, dispersing the seeds of fig and other shade trees and fertilizing the soil with feces. He points out that howler monkeys live in shade coffee and cacao plantations in Nicaragua and Costa Rica as well as in Mexico. Spider monkeys also forage in such plantations, though they need nearby areas of forest to survive in the long term. He hopes that farmers will begin to see the advantages of associating with wild monkeys, which includes potential ecotourism projects. ‘Conservation is usually viewed as a conflict between agricultural practices and the need to preserve nature,’ Estrada says. ‘We’re moving away from that vision and beginning to consider ways in which agricultural activities may become a tool for the conservation of primates in human-modified landscapes.’


Read the task and choose the right option

Questions 20-22

Look at the following places and the list of descriptions below.

Match each description with the correct place, A-E.

Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 20-22.


List of places

A Hacienda La Pacifica

B Santa Rosa National Park

C a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico

D Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico

E Amazon Basin

Exam tips

Sentence completion

1. Underline the key ideas in each question and scan the passage for the right place.

2. Read that section of the passage carefully and choose your answer.

pic2_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 5

Read the task in the green box and complete the questions

Questions 23-27

Complete the sentences below.

Choose no more than two words from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 23-27.


Monkeys and Forests

As an east wind blasts through a gap in the Cordillera de Tilaran, a rugged mountain range that splits northern Costa Rica in half, a female mantled howler monkey moves through the swaying trees of the forest canopy.

A Ken Glander, a primatologist from Duke University, gazes into the canopy, tracking the female’s movements. Holding a dart gun, he waits with infinite patience for the right moment to shoot. With great care, Glander aims and fires. Hit in the rump, the monkey wobbles. This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch in Guanacaste province. Other native primates — white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys — once were common in this area, too, but vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. Most of the surrounding land was clear-cut for pasture.

B Howlers persist at La Pacifica, Glander explains, because they are leaf-eaters. They eat fruit, when it’s available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, do not depend on large areas of fruiting trees. ‘Howlers can survive anyplace you have half a dozen trees, because their eating habits are so flexible,’ he says. In forests, life is an arms race between trees and the myriad creatures that feed on leaves. Plants have evolved a variety of chemical defenses, ranging from bad-tasting tannins, which bind with plant-produced nutrients, rendering them indigestible, to deadly poisons, such as alkaloids and cyanide.

C All primates, including humans, have some ability to handle plant toxins. ‘We can detoxify a dangerous poison known as caffeine, which is deadly to a lot of animals,’ Glander says. For leaf-eaters, long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin can increase their ability to defuse the poison and absorb the leaf nutrients. The leaves that grow in regenerating forests, like those at La Pacifica, are actually more howler friendly than those produced by the undisturbed, centuries-old trees that survive farther south, in the Amazon Basin. In younger forests, trees put most of their limited energy into growing wood, leaves and fruit, so they produce much lower levels of toxin than do well-established, old-growth trees.

D The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica. The park hosts populations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins and spider monkeys. Yet the forests there are young, most of them less than 50 years old. Capuchins were the first to begin using the reborn forests, when the trees were as young as 14 years. Howlers, larger and heavier than capuchins, need somewhat older trees, with limbs that can support their greater body weight. A working ranch at Hacienda La Pacifica also explain their population boom in Santa Rosa. ‘Howlers are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys for several reasons,’ Fedigan explains. ‘They can live within a small home range, as long as the trees have the right food for them. Spider monkeys, on the other hand, occupy a huge home range, so they can’t make it in fragmented habitat.’

E Howlers also reproduce faster than do other monkey species in the area. Capuchins don’t bear their first young until about 7 years old, and spider monkeys do so even later, but howlers give birth for the first time at about 3.5 years of age. Also, while a female spider monkey will have a baby about once every four years, well-fed howlers can produce an infant every two years.

F The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes. This ability gives them a real advantage over capuchin and spider monkeys, which have suffered during the long, ongoing drought in Guanacaste.

G Growing human population pressures in Central and South America have led to persistent destruction of forests. During the 1990s, about 1.1 million acres of Central American forest were felled yearly. Alejandro Estrada, an ecologist at Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico, has been exploring how monkeys survive in a landscape increasingly shaped by humans. He and his colleagues recently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. Like many varieties of coffee, cacao plants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted fig, monkey pod and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop. The howlers moved in about 25 years ago after nearby forests were cut. This strange habitat, a hodgepodge of cultivated native and exotic plants, seems to support about as many monkeys as would a same-sized patch of wild forest. The howlers eat the leaves and fruit of the shade trees, leaving the valuable cacao pods alone, so the farmers tolerate them.

H Estrada believes the monkeys bring underappreciated benefits to such farms, dispersing the seeds of fig and other shade trees and fertilizing the soil with feces. He points out that howler monkeys live in shade coffee and cacao plantations in Nicaragua and Costa Rica as well as in Mexico. Spider monkeys also forage in such plantations, though they need nearby areas of forest to survive in the long term. He hopes that farmers will begin to see the advantages of associating with wild monkeys, which includes potential ecotourism projects. ‘Conservation is usually viewed as a conflict between agricultural practices and the need to preserve nature,’ Estrada says. ‘We’re moving away from that vision and beginning to consider ways in which agricultural activities may become a tool for the conservation of primates in human-modified landscapes.’

Listen to the recording and do the tasks below

Exam tips

Multiple choice

  1. Underline key ideas in the questions and use them to help you follow the conversation.
  2. Listen carefully to everything the speakers say in relation to the key idea before you choose your answer.
  3. Although you may hear the words in the options, the speaker may be expressing the opposite idea.
  4. Listen for synonyms or paraphrases of the words in the question.

Labelling a diagram

  1. Read the title to know what you are going to be listening about.
  2. If there is more than one diagram, compare the features in each one.
  3. Decide what information you need for each gap.

pic3_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 5

Lecturer Annie Tony

Lecturer: Good morning Annie, Tony. How are you?
Annie: Fine, thanks.
Lecturer: Well, tell me what you have here.
Annie: We thought we’d look at different methods of hydroculture.
Lecturer: Uh huh.
Tony: In the true hydroponics method the roots are bathed with water and nutrient solution while support for the plant must be provided above the container.
Lecturer: And… alternatively?
Annie: Alternatively, the plants can grow with their roots in a substratum such as sand, vermiculite or LECA granules.
Tony: LECA stands for Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate and vermiculite is…
Lecturer: Thank you Tony, I know what vermiculite is… but you should be prepared to give details about all these things to the visitors. Can you explain what the advantage of LECA is over traditional soil?
Tony: It’s a natural product… manufactured from clay… it’s colourful, lightweight and… perfect for allergy sufferers.
Lecturer: That’s right. Now tell me why.
Annie: Because it’s clean and hygienic, bacteria and soil diseases don’t get a chance.
Lecturer: Well, you could say that on this chart here… «Ideal for household plants».
Annie: And we’ll point out that the growing medium itself makes no contribution to feeding, which is provided in solution with the water.
Lecturer: Good, now tell me what you’ve got here.
Annie: This is a simple version of the first method, using a wide-necked jar which we’ve filled with water and nutrients, leaving space at the top. As the roots need to be in darkness we’ll cover the sides of the glass with brown paper later.
Lecturer: How did you get the plant through the cork?
Tony: We made a hole through the centre and cut the cork in half so we could fit it around the plant stem and we padded the hole with cotton wool.
Lecturer: That’s a good demonstration of the principle involved, and ideal for a house plant but many people will want to see a wider application — what about more plants?
Annie: We haven’t quite finished the preparation yet, but over here you can see a bigger container — in fact, any wide container can be used — with the nutrient solution in the bottom, air space above… and then we’ve made a rigid lid and we’ve covered that with a layer of litter.
Lecturer: What have you used for litter?
Annie: We’ve used wood shavings…
Lecturer: Untreated?
Annie: Definitely. That’s most important — you can use a variety of materials for litter but obviously nothing toxic and treated timber contains some nasty chemicals so, if you’re using sawdust or wood shavings, they have to be from natural timber.
Lecturer: A good point…
Tony: Yes, we’ll make a note of that when we list possible ingredients for litter.
Lecturer: Be sure to explain the purpose of the rigid lid — it’s wire mesh, isn’t it? — And why the litter layer is important too.
Annie: Well, the mesh is just a platform to keep the litter out of the water and the primary function of the litter is to exclude light from the root space…


Questions 23-25

Label the diagram below.

Write no more than two words for each answer.


Listen to the recording and choose the right option

Lecturer Tony Annie

Lecturer: Mmm. What you have so far is ideal for the home or office but what about commercial applications?
Tony: Well, we’re going to demonstrate the nutrient film technique which is popular with some commercial growers, particularly for the cultivation of crops such as runner beans and tomatoes. Producers would really like to see some innovation in the cultivation of potatoes and yams too but obviously this technique is only suitable for those crops which grow above ground.
Lecturer: What about peas?
Tony: Well, we found peas were awfully tricky to grow using this method although we’re still unsure as to the reason.
Lecturer: Where’s the exhibit? I don’t see it anywhere.
Annie: Well, that’s because we haven’t finished it yet because we’re going to have to procure some mature plants first. We didn’t think far enough ahead to have started them off earlier. And when we do get them, we’ll have to handle them carefully.
Tony: Yes, because when our model is finished, you’ll see how the plants are held in position by a plastic tube which almost encloses them completely and is quite loosely fastened around the stems.
Lecturer: Ye..es, and the feeding or watering system?
Annie: Well, it’s a bit different — on a large scale like this, you need to have the food solution trickle down through the tubes…
Tony: Yes, but the solution must also be rich in oxygen…
Lecturer: And what — it just bathes the roots?
Tony: That’s one way of doing it.
Lecturer: What’s the other way?
Tony: You can have the solution moistering a substratum of rock wool at the bottom of the container.
Lecturer: Rock wool?
Tony: It’s the same as mineral wool — you know a lightweight, fibrous material — the kind of thing used for insulation. Or, you can use a layer of paper fibre.
Lecturer: Oh, yes… something that has the capacity to absorb the solution, right?
Annie: Well, you do need to experiment a little. For example, we tried coconut fibre…
Tony: But it just didn’t have the properties we were looking for…
Lecturer: I see.
Tony: In our display you’ll only see the basics — the kind of thing that can be done at home in the back yard, but commercial enterprises do need a lot more equipment and the media used in substrata are constantly changing as new developments are made. The cost of upgrading is ongoing.
Annie: And there’s always the potential of outright failure when changing systems from one you know and understand to an innovative one.
Lecturer: Of course. There’s no room for guesswork in business — you have to try to get everything right first time.


Read the task and make notes for a minute on the topic «An image I remember clearly»

Exam tips

Speaking Part 2

1. Use a range of strategies − such as giving reasons and examples, talking about the point you can say most about first, quoting someone else, referring back to something you have already mentioned, etc. − to help you speak for the full two minutes.

2. Use a range of advanced grammatical structures to raise your score.

pic4_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 5

Describe a picture or photograph that you have seen and which you remember clearly.

You should say:

  • what the image was;
  • where and when you saw it;
  • what type of feelings you had when you saw it;
  • why you think you remember it.


Instructions:

  1. Speak on the topic no longer than 2 minutes.
  2. You have 3 attempts to answer this question.
  3. Cover all the points and provide a relevant answer.

Allow your browser the access to the microphone, press the button «Record» and record the speech you have prepared

Look at the task and a process diagram and identify the key stages. Think of the vocabulary to describe them


Writing Task 1

The diagram shows the life cycle of the salmon.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.

Write your answer to the Writing task above in about 20 minutes. Your answer should be at least 150 words long

  • alevin — the second (after eggs) of four stages in the life cycle of a fish, when eggs hatch and the tiny fish begin to emerge
  • yolk sac — a membranous organ attached to the embryos of some species. It provides nutrients and fulfilling some crucial functions for organism’s development.
  • fry — very young fish
  • hatch — to break, letting the young fish, bird, insect etc come out

Exam tips

Writing Task 1

  1. Describe key stages in the process in a logical order making comparisons where appropriate.
  2. Use suitable words and phrases to structure and link the process clearly.
  3. Remember to include an overview summarising the main features of the process.
  4. Vary your vocabulary and use your own words as far as possible (e.g. do not lift long phrases from the task instructions).

Instructions

  1. Read the Exam task carefully. If necessary make use of Exam tips.
  2. Plan what you are going to write about.
  3. Write the text according to your plan.
  4. Check your writing.
  5. Please use 🔗Grammarly to avoid spelling and some grammar mistakes.

Useful language

  • afterwards
  • eventually
  • gradually
  • lastly
  • meanwhile
  • progressively
  • whilst

Writing task 1

If you open the lesson plan you will be able to assign separate pages as homework or all the homework pages at once.

  • Revise the vocabulary
  • Revise the grammar
  • Preserving the primates
  • Looking for a habitat
  • Hydroponics method
  • Sentimental image
  • Life cycle
  • Homework
  • Homework
  1. 1. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|1. Being a high achiever
  2. 2. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|2. University life
  3. 3. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|3. Getting a qualification
  4. 4. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|4. Career plans
  5. 5. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 1
  6. 6. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|5. Perceiving colours
  7. 7. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|6. The art of colour
  8. 8. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|7. The best colour
  9. 9. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|8. Adding colour
  10. 10. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 2
  11. 11. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|9. In therapy
  12. 12. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|10. Placebo effect
  13. 13. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|11. Changing life expectancy
  14. 14. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|12. Leading a healthy life
  15. 15. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 3
  16. 16. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|13. Works of art
  17. 17. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|14. Aboriginal art
  18. 18. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|15. Being good at arts
  19. 19. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|16. What is a masterpiece?
  20. 20. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 4
  21. 21. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|17. Collecting fossils
  22. 22. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|18. Evolution and survival
  23. 23. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|19. The Earth's interior
  24. 24. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|20. A valuable possession
  25. 25. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 5
  26. 26. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|21. The role of technology
  27. 27. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|22. Film making and technology
  28. 28. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|23. The impact of IT on society
  29. 29. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|24. Number one website
  30. 30. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 6
  31. 31. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|25. Environmental issues
  32. 32. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|26. Wildlife wonders
  33. 33. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|27. Endangered species
  34. 34. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|28. A symbol of a nation
  35. 35. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 7
  36. 36. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|29. Exploring space
  37. 37. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|30. Observing the stars
  38. 38. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|31. Space tourism prospects
  39. 39. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|32. Extraterrestrial phenomena
  40. 40. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 8
  41. 41. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Exam Part 1
  42. 42. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Exam Part 2