IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 7

Vocabulary chase
Before the lesson, think about these questions and revise the vocabulary

What are the possible ways to preserve the variety of species?

Wordlist

1. conservation

2. habitat

3. pollinator

4. stronghold

5. species

6. vanish

7. wildlife

8. bear in mind

9. in the long run

10. take time

11. take one’s breath away

12. take into account

Useful language

  • to make the most of
  • to put down to experience


How can people save rare species from extinction?

Wordlist

1. vulnerable

2. endangered

3. grazing

4. species

5. rainforest

6. ext.inct

7. grassland

8. wetland

9. poacher

Useful language

  • to increase fourfold
  • to become four times as high/big
  • at risk
  • to be under threat
  • vulnerable to extinction
  • habitat loss


How can zoos be helpful in protecting animals?

Wordlist

1. logging

2. awareness

3. publicity

4. integral

5. shrine

6. sanctuary

Useful language

  • to be in captivity
  • a primary occupation
  • to make a living
  • an ideal environment
  • to crack down on
  • to raise awareness

Grammar_IELTS

Revise the grammar rules

Participle Clauses with Adverbial Meaning 1

We can use present participle (-ing) and past participle (-ed) clauses with an adverbial meaning. They often give information about the timing, causes, and results of the events described:

  • Opening her eyes, the baby began to cry. (= When she opened her eyes …)
  • Faced with a bill for £10,000, Ivan has taken an extra job. (= Because he is faced …)
  • Looked after carefully, the plant can live through the winter. (= If it is looked after …)
  • Having finished the book, I had a holiday. (perfect; = When/Because I had finished …)
  • The fruit was expensive, being imported. (simple passive; = … because it was imported)
  • Having been hunted close to extinction, the rhino is once again common in this area. (perfect passive; = Although it had been hunted close to extinction …)

The implied subject of a participle clause (that is, a subject known but not directly mentioned) is usually the same as the subject of the main clause:

  • Arriving at the party, we saw Ruth standing alone. (= When we arrived … we saw …)

However, sometimes the implied subject is not referred to in the main clause:

  • Having wanted to drive a train all his life, this was an opportunity not to be missed.

In careful speech and writing we avoid different subjects for the participle and main clause:

  • Turning round quickly, the door hit me in the face. (first implied subject = «I»; second subject = «the door»)

would be better as:

  • When I turned round quickly, the door hit me in the face.

In formal English, the participle clause sometimes has its own subject, which is often a pronoun or includes one:

  • The collection of vases is priceless, some being over 2000 years old.
  • Her voice breaking with emotion, Vasiliki spoke about her father’s illness.

We use the present participle (-ing) clause to talk about something happening at the same time as an event in the main clause, or to give information about the facts given in the main clause.

When we use not in a participle clause it usually comes before the participle. However, it can follow the participle, depending on meaning:

  • Not understanding the rules, I found the cricket match boring. (= because I didn’t understand the rules)
  • Hoping not to be recognised, I chose a seat in a dark corner. (= I hoped that I wouldn’t be recognised)

We use a clause beginning with having + past participle rather than a present participle if the action in the main clause is the consequence of the event in the participle clause:

  • Having broken her leg the last time she went, Giorgia decided not to go on the school skiing trip this year. (or After breaking her leg …; not Breaking her leg …)

We can use either a present participle (-ing) clause or a having + past participle clause with a similar meaning when the action in the participle clause is complete before the action in the main clause begins. Compare:

  • Taking off his shoes, Ram walked into the house. (Having taken off … has a similar meaning)

and

  • Running across the field, I fell and hurt my ankle. (= While I was running …; «Having run …» would suggest that I fell after I had run across the field)

We can use either a being + past participle or a having been + past participle (-ed) to express the passive meaning. Compare:

  • He told us about the experiments being carried on in his laboratory.
  • Having been told the bad news, Susan sat down and cried.

Attachments

Participle_P1


Speculating About the Future

Expressing a high degree of certainty

phrase example
  • It’s highly/very/extremely likely/unlikely that …
  • There’s little/no doubt whether/that …
  • I very much doubt whether/that …
  • There’s every/a strong likelihood that …
  • … is bound to …
  • It’s very possible/probable that …
  • It’s highly unlikely that we’ll be able to prevent some endangered species from extinction.
  • There’s little doubt that the climate is changing.
  • I very much doubt that we shall be able to reverse the process of global warming.
  • There’s every likelihood that genetically modified crops will outplace the traditional ones in the future.
  • The scientific research is bound to continue.
  • It’s very probable that tigers will become extinct in the wild.

Expressing a moderate degree of certainty

phrase example
  • … is (quite) likely to …
  • … may/might/could well …
  • It’s quite/fairly likely/unlikely that …
  • … will probably …
  • There’s a strong possibility that …
  • There’s a good/fair/reasonable chance that …
  • Governments are likely to reach a new agreement on carbon emissions in the future.
  • In 20 years, most vegetables may well be genetically modified.
  • It’s fairly unlikely that people will become vegetarians.
  • But artificially produced meat will probably become quite common
  • There’s a strong possibility that environmental policies will dominate politics in the future.
  • There’s a fair chance that severe storms will become more common.

Expressing a relatively low degree of certainty

phrase example
  • may/might/could/ (possibly) …
  • There’s a possibility/chance that
  • We could possibly experience the coldest winter on record next winter.
  • There’s a chance that sea levels won’t rise very much.

Expressing a low degree of certainty

phrase example
  • There’s little/almost no chance/likelihood of/that …
  • There’s a slight possibility that …
  • There’s little likelihood of western societies abandoning consumerism.
  • There’s a slight possibility that the whole environmental situation will improve one day.

pic1_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 6

Read the information to get ready for the test

  • You will do the tasks in the exam format.
  • Read the instruction carefully before doing the task.
  • Remember that you don’t have to answer all the questions correctly to get a good result.
  • Try to relax and deal with easier questions first. Then come back and think about the difficult ones.

pic1_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 7

Read the exam task below and complete Questions 1-7

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.

Write the correct number, 1-10, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.


Trees in trouble

What is causing the decline of the world’s giant forests?

A. Big trees are incredibly important ecologically. For a start, they sustain countless other species. They provide shelter for many animals, and their trunks and branches can become gardens, hung with green ferns, orchids and bromeliads, coated with mosses and draped with vines. With their tall canopies basking in the sun, they capture vast amounts of energy. This allows them to produce massive crops of fruit, flowers and foliage that sustain much of the animal life in the forest.

B. Only a small number of tree species have the genetic capacity to grow really big. The mightiest are native to North America, but big trees grow all over the globe, from the tropics to the boreal forests of the high latitudes. To achieve giant stature, a tree needs three things: the right place to establish its seedlings, good growing conditions, and lots of time with low adult mortality. Disrupt any of these, and you can lose your biggest trees.

C. In some parts of the world, populations of big trees are dwindling because their seedlings cannot survive or grow. In southern India, for instance, an aggressive non-native shrub, Lantana camara, is invading the floor of many forests. Lantana grows so thickly that young trees often fail to take root. With no young trees to replace them, it is only a matter of time before most of the big trees disappear. Across much of northern Australia, gamba grass from Africa is overrunning native savannah woodland. The grass grows up to four metres tall and burns fiercely, creating super-hot fires that cause catastrophic tree mortality.

D. Without the right growing conditions, trees cannot get really big, and there is some evidence to suggest tree growth could slow in a warmer world, particularly in environments that are already warm. Having worked for decades at La Selva Biological Station in Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, David and Deborah Clark and colleagues have shown that tree growth there declines markedly in warmer years. «During the day, their photosynthesis shuts down when it gets too warm, and at night they consume more energy because their metabolic rate increases, much as a reptile’s would when it gets warmer,» explains David Clark. With less energy produced in warmer years and more being consumed just to survive, there is even less energy available for growth.

E. The Clarks’ hypothesis, if correct, means tropical forests would shrink over time. The largest, oldest trees would progressively die off and tend not to be replaced. According to the Clarks, this might trigger a destabilisation of the climate; as older trees die, forests would release some of their stored carbon into the atmosphere, prompting a vicious cycle of further warming, forest shrinking, and carbon emissions.

F. Big trees face threats from elsewhere. The most serious is increasing mortality, especially of mature trees. Across much of the planet, forests of slow-growing ancient trees have been cleared for human use. In western North America, most have been replaced by monocultures of fast-growing conifers. Siberia’s forests are being logged at an incredible rate. Logging in tropical forests is selective, but the timber cutters usually prioritise the biggest and oldest trees. In the Amazon, my colleagues and I found the mortality rate for the biggest trees had tripled in small patches of rainforest surrounded by pasture land. This happens for two reasons. First, as they grow taller, big trees become thicker and less flexible: when winds blow across the surrounding cleared land, there is nothing to stop their acceleration. When they hit the trees, the impact can snap them in half. Second, rainforest fragments dry out when surrounded by dry, hot pastures, and the resulting drought can have devastating consequences: one four-year study has shown that death rates will double for smaller trees but will increase 4.5 times for bigger trees.

G. Particular enemies to large trees are insects and diseases. Across vast areas of western North America, increasingly mild winters are causing massive outbreaks of bark beetle. These tiny creatures can kill entire forests as they tunnel their way through the inside of trees. In both North America and Europe, fungus-causing diseases such as Dutch elm disease have killed off millions of stately trees that once gave beauty to forests and cities. As a result of human activity, such enemies reach even the remotest corners of the world, threatening to make the ancient giants a thing of the past.

pic1_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 1

Read the exam task below and complete Questions 8-13


Trees in trouble

What is causing the decline of the world’s giant forests?

A. Big trees are incredibly important ecologically. For a start, they sustain countless other species. They provide shelter for many animals, and their trunks and branches can become gardens, hung with green ferns, orchids and bromeliads, coated with mosses and draped with vines. With their tall canopies basking in the sun, they capture vast amounts of energy. This allows them to produce massive crops of fruit, flowers and foliage that sustain much of the animal life in the forest.

B. Only a small number of tree species have the genetic capacity to grow really big. The mightiest are native to North America, but big trees grow all over the globe, from the tropics to the boreal forests of the high latitudes. To achieve giant stature, a tree needs three things: the right place to establish its seedlings, good growing conditions, and lots of time with low adult mortality. Disrupt any of these, and you can lose your biggest trees.

C. In some parts of the world, populations of big trees are dwindling because their seedlings cannot survive or grow. In southern India, for instance, an aggressive non-native shrub, Lantana camara, is invading the floor of many forests. Lantana grows so thickly that young trees often fail to take root. With no young trees to replace them, it is only a matter of time before most of the big trees disappear. Across much of northern Australia, gamba grass from Africa is overrunning native savannah woodland. The grass grows up to four metres tall and burns fiercely, creating super-hot fires that cause catastrophic tree mortality.

D. Without the right growing conditions, trees cannot get really big, and there is some evidence to suggest tree growth could slow in a warmer world, particularly in environments that are already warm. Having worked for decades at La Selva Biological Station in Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui, David and Deborah Clark and colleagues have shown that tree growth there declines markedly in warmer years. «During the day, their photosynthesis shuts down when it gets too warm, and at night they consume more energy because their metabolic rate increases, much as a reptile’s would when it gets warmer,» explains David Clark. With less energy produced in warmer years and more being consumed just to survive, there is even less energy available for growth.

E. The Clarks’ hypothesis, if correct, means tropical forests would shrink over time. The largest, oldest trees would progressively die off and tend not to be replaced. According to the Clarks, this might trigger a destabilisation of the climate; as older trees die, forests would release some of their stored carbon into the atmosphere, prompting a vicious cycle of further warming, forest shrinking, and carbon emissions.

F. Big trees face threats from elsewhere. The most serious is increasing mortality, especially of mature trees. Across much of the planet, forests of slow-growing ancient trees have been cleared for human use. In western North America, most have been replaced by monocultures of fast-growing conifers. Siberia’s forests are being logged at an incredible rate. Logging in tropical forests is selective, but the timber cutters usually prioritise the biggest and oldest trees. In the Amazon, my colleagues and I found the mortality rate for the biggest trees had tripled in small patches of rainforest surrounded by pasture land. This happens for two reasons. First, as they grow taller, big trees become thicker and less flexible: when winds blow across the surrounding cleared land, there is nothing to stop their acceleration. When they hit the trees, the impact can snap them in half. Second, rainforest fragments dry out when surrounded by dry, hot pastures, and the resulting drought can have devastating consequences: one four-year study has shown that death rates will double for smaller trees but will increase 4.5 times for bigger trees.

G. Particular enemies to large trees are insects and diseases. Across vast areas of western North America, increasingly mild winters are causing massive outbreaks of bark beetle. These tiny creatures can kill entire forests as they tunnel their way through the inside of trees. In both North America and Europe, fungus-causing diseases such as Dutch elm disease have killed off millions of stately trees that once gave beauty to forests and cities. As a result of human activity, such enemies reach even the remotest corners of the world, threatening to make the ancient giants a thing of the past.

Listen to the recording and answer the questions below

Helen Colin

Helen: I’ve brought my notes on our Biology Trip to Rocky Bay, Colin, so we can work on our report on the research we did together.
Colin: Ok, I’ve got mine too. Let’s look at the aims of the trip first.
Helen: Right. What did you have?
Colin: I just put something about getting experience of the different sorts of procedures used on a field trip. But we need something about what causes different organisms to choose particular habitats.
Helen: I agree. And something about finding out how to protect organisms in danger of dying out?
Colin: In our aims? But we weren’t really looking at that.
Helen: I suppose not. OK, now there’s the list of equipment we all had to bring on the field trip. What did they tell us to bring a ruler for?
Colin: It was something about measuring the slope of the shore, but of course we didn’t need it because we were measuring wind direction, and we’d brought the compass for that.
Helen: But not the piece of string to hold up in the air! Didn’t Mr Blake make a fuss about us leaving that behind.
Colin: Yeah. He does go on. Anyway, it was easy to get one from another of the students.
Helen: Now, the next section’s the procedure. I sent you the draft of that.
Colin: Yeah. It was clear, but I don’t think we need all these details of what time we left and what time we got back and how we divided up the different research tasks.
Helen: OK. I’ll look at that again.
Colin: Then we have to describe our method of investigation in detail. So let’s begin with how we measured wave speed. I was surprised how straightforward that was.
Helen: I’d expected us to have some sort of high-tech device, not just stand there and count the number of waves per minute. Not very precise, but I suppose it was good enough. But the way we measured the amount of salt was interesting.
Colin: In the water from the rock pools?
Helen: Yeah! Oh, I wanted to check the chemicals we used in the lab when we analysed those samples. Was it potassium chromate and silver nitrate?
Colin: That’s right.
Helen: OK. And we need the map of the seashore. You just left that to me. And I had to do it while the tide was low, well, that was OK, but the place I started it from was down on the beach, then I realised I should have gone up higher to get better visibility. So I had to start all over again. But at least I’d got the squared paper, or I’d have had problems drawing it all to scale.
Colin: Yes. It looks good. We could get a map of the region off the internet and see if we need to make any changes.
Helen: I had a look, but I couldn’t find anything. But you took some pictures, didn’t you?
Colin: Yeah. I’ll email you them if you want.
Helen: OK. I’ll make my amendments using those, then I can scan it into our report. Great. Now, when we get to our findings, I thought we could divide them up into the different zones we identified on the shore and the problems organisms face in each zone. So for the highest area…
Colin: …the splash zone?
Helen: Yeah, we found mostly those tiny shellfish that have strong head shells that act as protection.
Colin: But not from other organisms that might eat them, predators?
Helen: No, that’s not the main danger for them. But the shells prevent them from drying out because they’re in the open air for most of the time.
Colin: Right. And since they’re exposed, they need to be able to find some sort of shelter, or cover themselves up, so they don’t get too hot. Then in the middle and lower zones, nearer the sea, we need to discuss the effects of wave action.
Helen: Yes, and how organisms develop structures to prevent themselves from being swept away, or even destroyed by being smashed against the rocks.
Colin: I haven’t done anything on the geological changes. I don’t know what to put for that.
Helen: No, we weren’t concentrating on that. Maybe, we need to find some websites.
Colin: Good idea. I’ve got the lecture notes from Mr Blake’s geology course, but they’re too general. But we could ask him which books on our Reading List might be most helpful.
Helen: Right. OK, now I did a draft of the section of sources of possible error in our research, but I don’t know if you agree. For example, the size of the sample, and whether it’s big enough to make any general conclusions from, but I thought actually we did have quite a big sample.
Colin: We did. And our general method of observation seemed quite reliable. But we might not be all that accurate as far as the actual numbers go.
Helen: Yeah, we might have missed some organisms — if they were hiding under a rock, for example. I wasn’t sure about the way we described their habitats. I decided it was probably OK.
Colin: Yeah, and the descriptions we gave of the smaller organisms, they weren’t very detailed, but they were adequate in this context. I’m not sure we identified all the species correctly though.
Helen: OK, we’d better mention that. Now, how …


Rocky Bay field trip


In questions 7 and 8 choose the two correct options from A-E

Read the task and take a minute to make notes on the topic

Exam tips

Speaking Part 2

1. Use a range of strategies (giving reasons and examples, talking about the point you can say most about first, quoting someone else, referring back to something you have already mentioned, etc.) to help you speak for the full two minutes.

2. Use a range of advanced grammar structures to raise your score.

3. Be aware of the 🔗IELTS Speaking band descriptors.

listen and speak_Lesson

Describe a wild animal that you have seen that impressed you.

You should say:

  • what it looked like
  • where you saw it
  • what you were doing when you saw it

and explain how you feel about this animal.


Instructions

  • Speak on the topic no longer than 2 minutes.
  • You have 3 attempts to answer this question.
  • Cover all of the points and provide a relevant answer.

Allow your browser access to your microphone, press the button «Record» and record the speech you have prepared

Look at the visuals and identify the key stages. Think about the vocabulary to describe them

pic4_Adults|Grammar|El|L6

Writing Task 1

The pie chart below shows the main reasons why agricultural land becomes less productive. The table shows how these causes affected three regions of the world during the 1990s.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.

Useful language

  • principal/major causes
  • to deteriorate
  • unproductive land
  • land degradation
  • to constitute
  • a small proportion
  • respectively

pic2_IELTS|Upper-Int|Revision 7

Region % of land degraded by different factors
Deforestation Over-cultivation Over-grazing Total land degraded
North America

Europe

Oceania

0.2

9.8

1.7

3.3

7.7

0

1.5

5.5

11.3

5%

23%

13%

Write your answer to the Writing task above in about 20 minutes. Your answer should be at least 150 words long

Instructions

  1. Read Exam Task carefully.
  2. Plan what you are going to write about.
  3. Write the text according to your plan.
  4. Check your writing.
  5. Please use 🔗Grammarly to avoid spelling and some grammar mistakes.
  6. Be aware of the 🔗IELTS Task 1 Writing band descriptors.

Writing task 1

If you open the lesson plan you will be able to assign separate pages as homework or all the homework pages at once.

  • Revise the vocabulary
  • Revise the grammar
  • Test overview
  • Endangered giants
  • Reading comprehension
  • Listen and choose
  • Speak your mind
  • Can you write?
  • Homework
  • Homework
  1. 1. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|1. Being a high achiever
  2. 2. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|2. University life
  3. 3. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|3. Getting a qualification
  4. 4. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|4. Career plans
  5. 5. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 1
  6. 6. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|5. Perceiving colours
  7. 7. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|6. The art of colour
  8. 8. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|7. The best colour
  9. 9. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|8. Adding colour
  10. 10. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 2
  11. 11. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|9. In therapy
  12. 12. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|10. Placebo effect
  13. 13. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|11. Changing life expectancy
  14. 14. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|12. Leading a healthy life
  15. 15. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 3
  16. 16. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|13. Works of art
  17. 17. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|14. Aboriginal art
  18. 18. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|15. Being good at arts
  19. 19. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|16. What is a masterpiece?
  20. 20. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 4
  21. 21. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|17. Collecting fossils
  22. 22. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|18. Evolution and survival
  23. 23. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|19. The Earth's interior
  24. 24. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|20. A valuable possession
  25. 25. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 5
  26. 26. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|21. The role of technology
  27. 27. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|22. Film making and technology
  28. 28. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|23. The impact of IT on society
  29. 29. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|24. Number one website
  30. 30. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 6
  31. 31. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|25. Environmental issues
  32. 32. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|26. Wildlife wonders
  33. 33. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|27. Endangered species
  34. 34. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|28. A symbol of a nation
  35. 35. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 7
  36. 36. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|29. Exploring space
  37. 37. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|30. Observing the stars
  38. 38. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|31. Space tourism prospects
  39. 39. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|32. Extraterrestrial phenomena
  40. 40. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Revise and Check 8
  41. 41. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Exam Part 1
  42. 42. IELTS|Upper-Intermediate|Exam Part 2