Demo|Int|Formal communication at work

pic1_Business|Upper-Int|L15_Revision 2

Match the pictures to the phrases and answer the questions

1. Which of these situations have you ever taken part in?

2. Would you agree that they are formal? Why?

3. Can you come up with more formal situations at work that were not included in the task?

4. What’s the difference between formal and informal communication at work?

Guess which answer is the right one. Then listen and check your predictions

pic1_Intro|Pre-Int|Formal communication





well established — has been in existence for quite a long time and is successful

prescribed — set by a rule or order

a template — something that is used as a pattern for producing other similar things

overall — covering or including everything

top level management = superior = authority

employee = worker = subordinate

to preserve — to keep up; maintain

be bound to — to be very likely to do or feel a particular thing

ultimately — finally, after a series of things have happened

ease — the state of experiencing no difficulty, effort, pain, etc.

Part 1

Formal communication is organized and managed information that is shared with individuals in order to secure coordinated action throughout the organization.
Typically, formal communication flows «downward» from executives to directors to managers to staff regarding company direction and instruction and «upward» from staff to managers to directors to executives in the form of data and reports. The communication flowing through these channels is specific to the jobs and departments.
Such formal communication is well established and planned. The main advantages of formal communication are the following:

🔹Increase overall efficiency: This type of communication is used by following the predetermined rules so it increases the overall efficiency of the organization.

🔹Easy communication system: The top level management communicates with their employees by using formal downward communication system. Again the employees communicate with their higher authority to use this system. It is very much easy to communicate with each other.

🔹Permanent record: The copy of formal communication is always preserved in the file and it is used as reference. As a result, it is easy to seek the copy of it if necessary.

🔹Maintenance of discipline: Under the formal communication system the workers are bound to be careful to their own duty. So ultimately it makes discipline in the organization.

🔹Ease of delegation of authority: Authority is delegated by the superiors to the subordinates through the help of this communication.

🔹Free from mistakes: Since formal communication has well defined rules and regulations there is a little chance of mistakes in exchanging information within the employees.

Find out what advantages the phrases correspond to

Study the list of disadvantages that formal communication has

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Top level management communicates with their employees by maintaining the board of succession, not by-passing any executive or any level. That is why it takes a lot of time and it wastes much time of the concerned person.

Formal communication is inflexible. If somebody out of the channel intends to change his views, it is not possible. Even when it is needed to change, it is very much difficult.

Under this communication system everybody does their duty by following specific predetermined system. So it makes the obstacle to develop the creativeness of the employee.

In this system the sender is higher authority and the receiver is lower staffs. Generally the superior’s order cannot be disobeyed. It creates an authoritarian culture in the organisation.

In the formal communication system the subordinate staffs strictly follow the order of superior authority. So the implementer of the order does not obey their duty properly.

Lack of personal relation, delay in decision making, not suitable for motivation, creates misunderstanding, creates mental distance.

Make phrases from two parts

Read the comments from the audience. Choose the reasons of the problems


Present the information below using the following techniques

pic3_Intro|Pre-Int|Formal communication


a) Introducing a list of points: There are three things we have to consider …

b) Linking parts of the presentation: That’s all I want to say about … Now let’s turn to …

c) Sequencing information: First, then, finally.

d) Emphasising key points: As I’ve already said …

1. Introduction
Today, I’ll give a brief summary of the transition from export marketing to international marketing. I’ll talk about these two phases, their characteristics, and the investment cost.

2. Main body
Export marketing — 4 main characteristics.

a) home-based production and home-based management

b) direct selling to the export markets

c) use agents and distributors

d) sales centres in overseas markets

Investment cost: low with export marketing because production and management is centred on the home base.

International marketing — 3 main characteristics.

a) production expansion in overseas markets

b) local management: local cost centres responsible for making a profit

c) more local employment

Investment cost: more investment because investment with international marketing is high.

Listen and complete the text

Good morning, everyone. Today, I’ll give a brief summary of the transition from export marketing to international marketing. I’ll talk about these two phases, their characteristics, and the investment cost.

I’ll start with the first phase ─ export marketing. It has four main characteristics. First, with export marketing there is home-based production and home-based management. Secondly, there is direct selling to the export markets. Next, it’s common to use agents and distributors. Finally, it’s possible that there are sales centres in overseas markets. Overall, the investment costs are low with export marketing because almost everything, especially production and management, is still centred on the home base.

Now let’s take a look at the second phase, international marketing. Here I identify three main characteristics. The first is that production has expanded to overseas markets. This is very important. Next, there is local management. This means you have local cost centres — individually responsible for making a profit. Finally, there is much more local employment of staff and management. Altogether, this means there is more investment, so investment with international marketing is high.

Choose the best heading to each paragraph

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Selecting a Framework

A chronological structure is useful for showing progressive developments. Its linear structure is intuitive and easy to understand. To avoid seeming one-dimensional, ensure your material has both purpose and pace.

Read the information in the box. Choose any phrases from the list below and make the conclusion

Main issues presented: product range, distribution, personnel.
Recommendations: diverse product range, review the distribution network, provide more training for employees.


Choose two topics. Prepare a 1-3-minute speech following the task in the box below

Present to your colleagues

Audience: company employees

Topic: Salary freeze: reasons and implementation

Purpose: to inform

Time: 20 min


🔹amazing or shocking fact: Did you know that …

🔹a rhetorical question: What do you think …

🔹a problem to think about: Suppose …; Imagine …

🔹a story or an anecdote: I remember…

Presenting your company at the conference

You have been invited to participate at the international conference representing your company to attract possible clients. Important information to include:


🔹important achievements

🔹future plans and projects


Communication problems at work

You are a safety expert, and you have given a presentation on safety procedures on an oil platform. Use the information below to make the conclusion.


🔹35% of incidents in the last 4 years contain some degree of communication problem;

🔹existing communication procedures are not considered satisfactory.


🔹more emphasis on communication procedures;

🔹program of regular revision of the procedures.

Complete the phrases with their functions

  • Follow a procedure
  • Efficiency and discipline
  • Superior’s order
  • I can’t hear a thing!
  • Now let’s turn to ...
  • Choose your framework
  • To sum up
  • Moving to the next point

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