Lego|Grammar|Pre-Int|6. Articles (general rules)

Read the text quickly and solve the code below

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In the past people often used codes when they wanted to send a secret message. It was safe because you could read the message correctly only if you knew the code.

But codes are not just something used by Julius Caesar or Mata Hari (she was a famous spy). Today we use codes several times a day — for example, when you pay for something by credit card or send an email to your friends. Nowadays codes protect information.

Before computers, the biggest users of codes were governments, who used them in wars.

Julius Caesar used a simple system to communicate with his army. Instead of writing A, he would write D (+3 letters). What a great code he invented! He sent messages to his soldiers: as they knew the code, they could easily understand what the emperor wanted to say.

Computer security systems today are not so different. But modern keys are much bigger, and there are billions of possibilities for each letter or number.

Here is the key to Caesar’s code

Code letters Message letters
D A
E B
F C
G D
H E
I F
J G
K H
L I
M J
N K
O L
P M
Q N
R O
S P
T Q
U R
V S
W T
X U
Y V
Z W
A X
B Y
C Z

As you have probably guessed, today we are going to speak about articles and this text will help us.

Look at the words in bold in the text and underline the articles before them or cross the space if there is no article

Use 🔗Page Marker

As you probably remember, the choice of articles often depends on context, so let’s look at the text once again and try to discover some rules.

grammar


Match the sentences from the text with the rules

Use 🔗Page Marker

1. Today we use codes several times a day. with superlatives like the biggest, the most dangerous
2. What a great code he invented! when it is clear which thing or person you mean
3. She was a famous spy. in expressions like once a day, three days a week, etc.
4. Caesar used a simple system to communicate with his army. when you say what somebody’s job is
5. The biggest users of codes were governments. in exclamations What a …!
6. They knew the code. when you mention a thing or person for the first time
7. They could easily understand what the emperor wanted to say. when you talk about something you have already mentioned

1. Today we use codes several times a day. in expressions like once a day, three days a week, etc.
2. What a great code he invented! in exclamations What a …!
3. She was a famous spy. when you say what somebody’s job is
4. Caesar used a simple system to communicate with his army. when you mention a thing or person for the first time
5. The biggest users of codes were governments. with superlatives like the biggest, the most dangerous
6. They knew the code. when you talk about something you have already mentioned
7. They could easily understand what the emperor wanted to say. when it is clear which thing or person you mean

 

Read and remember the rules

Grammar English

Use a/an with singular countable nouns:

🔹when you mention a thing or person for the first time

Look! It’s a new book about Ancient Greece.

🔹when you say what kind of a thing something is

Morse code is a cipher.

🔹when you say what somebody’s job is

Mata Hari was a spy.

🔹in exclamations What a/an …!

What an unusual code!

🔹in expressions like once a week, twice a month, $1,50 a kilo, etc.

I watch science fiction films once a month.

Use the with singular and plural countable nouns, and uncountable nouns

🔹when you talk about something you have already mentioned

Look! It’s a new book about Ancient Greece. The book is worth reading.

The film was about spies. The spies were really intelligent.

🔹when it is clear which thing or person you mean (because there is only one)

If you have any questions about this rule, ask the teacher (= you have only one teacher).

🔹with superlatives

Who were the most famous spies in your country?

Zero article

🔹Don’t use any article with plural and uncountable nouns when you are speaking in general

We work under stress.

Codes are usually difficult to solve.

! But

Don’t forget about the article the with plural countable and uncountable nouns when you talk about something you have already mentioned or when it is clear what things or people you mean

The codes we use are difficult to solve.

Read the sentences and answer the questions

Complete the text with the correct article

in code is a set phrase used without any article.

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Fill in the gaps with the correct article. If no article is needed, put a dash (-)

Now let’s discuss the topic you like. You may choose a film or code given in green buttons, or the one you know. Use the questions as prompts. It’s not necessary to answer all of them.

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Choose the topic and speak about it

James Bond Seventeen Moments of Spring Film about the spy
James Bond Seventeen Moments of Spring The film about spies you like

1. What is it about?

2. When did it come out?

3. Do you like it? Why (not)?

4. Would you recommend it? Why (not)?


morse code Java script code The code you know
Morse code Java script The code you know

1. Who invented the code?

2. What is the key to it?

3. Why is it popular?

4. Have you ever used it? What for?

Choose the correct article a/an, the or «—» (if no article is needed)

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Complete the sentences with the correct article a/an, the or «-/—» (if no article is needed)

  • History of codes
  • Decoding
  • Famous mysteries
  • In code
  • Being a spy
  • James Bond

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